eng
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
2018-01-01
9
1
1
18
10.22044/jme.2017.5975.1414
1023
A new approach for assessing stability of rock slopes considering centroids of weak zones
A. Turanboy
aturanboy@konya.edu.tr
1
E. Ülker
eulker@selcuk.edu.tr
2
C. B. Küçüksütçü
cburak@msn.com
3
Mining Engineering, Seydişehir Ahmet Cengiz Engineering Faculty, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey
Computer Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Selçuk University, Kampüs, Konya, Turkey
BayE Information, Education and Consulting Ltd., Konya, Turkey
The intersection lines between discontinuity surfaces and their intersection points on the visible surfaces of any engineering structure may be the instability indicators. This paper describes a new approach to modelling the intersecting lines and points that would provide the first evaluation of any instability in an engineering structure characterized by the failure modes. In this work, the intersection lines were grouped according to their direction either in the reverse or in the same direction as the dip of the slope. Furthermore, the intersection lines are grouped according to various ranges of the interior friction angle, which can be selected by the users in a computer application developed for this work. The orientation of the intersecting lines and the location of the exposed intersection points are defined and assigned as the scatter points. These exposed points are clustered to determine the centroid locations. The K-means clustering is used in this step. Finally, all these analyses are integrated in a logical order, and the results obtained are used to assess the instabilities on the slope surface. Experiments are carried out on a rock cut along the Konya-Antalya (Turkey) highway, which is composed of limestone, to demonstrate the performance and results of the approach. The locations of the possible failure zones in the critical range of the interior friction angle are defined both visually and numerically along the slope. Experiments show that the proposed method is very useful and easy to implement and yields practical preliminary evaluation results pertaining to instabilities according to the basic failure modes.
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1023_9e81cb0eb9e190408b84fa8bd2ddf9ee.pdf
rock mass
Failure Modes
Intersection Lines and Points
K-means
Interior Friction Angles
eng
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
2018-01-01
9
1
19
39
10.22044/jme.2017.5419.1357
1051
Exploration of Kahang porphyry copper deposit using advanced integration of geological, remote sensing, geochemical, and magnetics data
S. Barak
samaneh_barak@yahoo.com
1
A. Bahroudi
bahroudi@ut.ac.ir
2
G. Jozanikohan
gjkohan@ut.ac.ir
3
School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
The purpose of mineral exploration is to find ore deposits. The main aim of this work is to use the fuzzy inference system to integrate the exploration layers including the geological, remote sensing, geochemical, and magnetic data. The studied area was the porphyry copper deposit of the Kahang area in the preliminary stage of exploration. Overlaying of rock units and tectonic layers were used to prepare the geological layer. ASTER images were used for the purpose of recognition of the alterations. The processes used for preparation of the alteration layer were the image-based methods including RGB, band ratio, and principal component analysis as well as the spectrum-based methods including spectral angel mapper and spectral feature fitting. In order to prepare the geochemical layer, the multivariate statistical methods such as the Pearson correlation matrix and cluster analysis were applied on the data, which showed that both copper and molybdenum were the most effective elements of mineralization. Application of the concentration-number multi-fractal modeling was used for geochemical anomaly separation, and finally, the geochemical layer was obtained by the overlaying of two prepared layers of copper and molybdenum. In order to prepare the magnetics layer, the analytical signal map of the magnetometry data was selected. Finally, the FIS integration was applied on the layers. Ultimately, the mineral potential map was obtained and compared with the 33 drilled boreholes in the studied area. The accuracy of the model was validated upon achieving the 70.6% agreement percentage between the model results and true data from the boreholes, and consequently, the appropriate areas were suggested for the subsequent drilling.
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1051_d7399c3a7fc70b1f62269a110f6771db.pdf
Fuzzy Inference System
Geographic Information System
Mineral Potential Map
Kahang
Porphyry
eng
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
2018-01-01
9
1
41
52
10.22044/jme.2017.5522.1364
1038
Hydrothermal alterations mapping using Quickbird and Landsat-8 data, a case study from Babbiduyeh, Kerman province, Iran
H. Aryanmehr
hojjataryanmehr@gmail.com
1
M. Hosseinjanizadeh
mh.hosseinjani@gmail.com
2
M. Honarmand
mehonarmand167@yahoo.com
3
F. Naser
fnnaseri@yahoo.com
4
Department of Ecology, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran
Department of Ecology, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran
Department of Ecology, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran
Department of Ecology, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran
In this work, we focus on investigating the Quickbird and Landsat-8 datasets for mapping hydrothermal and gossans alterations in reconnaissance porphyry copper mineralization in the Babbiduyeh area. This area is situated in the Central Iranian Volcano-sedimentary Complex, where large copper deposits like Sarcheshmeh as well as numerous occurrences of copper exist. The alteration zones are discriminated by implementation of band ratio and principal component analysis on the Quickbird and Landsat-8 datasets. The image processing results are evaluated by field surveys, X-ray diffraction (XRD), microscopic thin section, and spectroscopic studies of field samples as well as the 1:100000 Sarduiyeh and 1:5000 Babbiduyeh geological maps. In addition, the spectral characterizations of the samples are analyzed by visual inspection, and the PIMAView, SAMS, and ViewSpecpro software programs. The combined spectroscopic measurements, XRD analyses, and petrographic studies revealed mineral assemblages typical of the phyllic, phyllic-supergen, propylitic, argillic, and gossan alterations. The results obtained from image processing and analysis of field samples illustrated examples of effects of iron oxides and hydroxides on the surface of phyllic and argillic alterations. Hence, it can be concluded that the areas discriminated in Quickbird as gossans correspond to the phyllic and argillic alteration areas.
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1038_43ef70181b688724ec6496406db3ecf4.pdf
Band ratio
Hydrothermal Alteration
Landsat-8
Principal Component Analysis
Quickbird
eng
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
2018-01-01
9
1
53
60
10.22044/jme.2017.5707.1384
1076
Simulation of tunnel boring machine utilization: A case study
S. Moosazadeh
s_moosazadeh@sut.ac.ir
1
H. Aghababaie
babaei@sut.ac.ir
2
Seyed H. Hoseinie
hadi.hoseinie@cc.iut.ac.ir
3
B. Ghodrati
behzad.ghodrati@ltu.se
4
Faculty of Mining Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran
Faculty of Mining Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran
Department of Mining Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
Division of Operation & Maintenance Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden
Utilization is one of the main managerial factors that is applied for construction process analysis well. It directly affects the project duration and construction costs. Therefore, a utilization study in tunneling projects is essential. In this work, the utilization of an earth pressure balance Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) in Tabriz urban railway project was studied using the Monte Carlo simulation approach. For this purpose, the unit operation during one working shift such as boring time, ring building time, and locomotive travel time was recorded and saved in data base. In addition, the general down times such as TBM and back-up system maintenance, surface and tunnel logistic maintenance, cutting tools’ replacement, and locomotive delay times were recorded and considered in simulation. The results of this work show that the mean simulated project duration time of case study TBM is approximately 859 shifts and close to the real data with a difference of 0.92%. Finally, the average estimated utilization factor was found to be approximately 14%.
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1076_5f742227d799504c6ef68bc1bec43a2f.pdf
Tunnel Boring Machine
Utilization
Simulation
down time
eng
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
2018-01-01
9
1
61
72
10.22044/jme.2017.5763.1387
1041
UPL determination of multi-element deposits with grade uncertainty using a new block economic value calculation approach
M. Jamshidi
mo.jamshidi@aut.ac.ir
1
M. Osanloo
morteza.osanloo@gmail.com
2
Mining and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran
Mining and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran
The block economic value (BEV) of a single-metal deposit is calculated based on the metal content and the related costs. The common methods available for calculating BEV are just based upon the profitable elements, and the effects of undesirable elements on BEV are not considered. However, in multi-element deposits, the effects of other elements existing in the blocks on BEV should be considered with the purpose of optimizing the blending. These elements and blending methods have considerable effects on the quality of the final product. In this paper, a new approach is introduced to determine BEV in multi-element deposit with two types of profitable and penalty elements by considering the effect of blending on BEV. Consequently, the ultimate pit limits (UPLs) will be determined based on these conditions. The developed model is tested in the Gol-e-Gohar No.2 iron-ore mine, and the mine UPLs is determined. The results obtained showed that the mineable reserve of the pit increased by 3% when the effects of both types of elements are considered. In order to investigate the effect of grade uncertainty on BEV, twenty realizations of the ore block are generated using the sequential Gaussian simulation approach. The UPLs of all the realizations are determined using the developed BEV-calculation method, and the pit limits with different probabilities of occurrence are determined. The total mineable reserve varied between 20,380 and 46,410 million tons. The exploitation of mine should start with the smallest pit (100% probability). The largest pit should be considered as a guide for surface-facility locating.
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1041_73fc2cb3712477ac9d3945614d5b07c4.pdf
BEV
multi-element deposits
Pit limits
grade uncertainty
Open-Pit Mining
eng
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
2018-01-01
9
1
73
89
10.22044/jme.2017.5738.1389
984
Determination of scratching energy index for Cerchar abrasion test
M. T. Hamzaban
hamzaban@sut.ac.ir
1
H. Memarian
memarian@ut.ac.ir
2
J. Rostami
rostami@mines.edu
3
Mining Engineering Faculty, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran
School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Department of Mining Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Denver, USA
Rock abrasivity is an essential factor for selecting cutting tools, estimating tool wear and life, and ultimately, matching various mechanized excavation systems with a given geologic condition. It also assists engineers to determine economic limits of different cutting tools and machines used in civil and mining projects. The Cerchar abrasion test is a simple and most widely used method for rock abrasivity assessments. However, it has some shortcomings to describe the steel-rock interaction during the cutting process. In this work, two new parameters are used to describe the pin-rock interaction in the Cerchar abrasion test and to evaluate the efficiency of the rock scratching process. A set of 41 different rock samples are tested by a newly developed testing device. The device provides a more precise control of the testing operational parameters, and measures the applied frictional force on the pin and its horizontal and vertical displacements on the sample surface. The results obtained are used to calculate the Modified Cerchar Abrasion Index (MCAI) and the Scratch Energy Index (SEi), as two newly developed parameters. The accuracy of the calculated parameters is discussed. Our investigations show that MCAI has closer correlations with rock mechanical parameters than CAI, and therefore, has a higher potential to estimate the rock cutting tool wear in tunneling applications. Also SEi shows sensible correlations with sample hardness and mechanical properties. The results obtained show that SEi can be used to compare the efficiency of various pin hardnesses to create scratches on various rock samples, and could be used as a determinative parameter in selecting the cutting tool hardness.
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_984_3d1bcd1ee7e9bf25ca67af6415102a91.pdf
Cerchar Abrasion Test
Scratching Energy Index
Rock Abrasivity
Tool Wear
eng
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
2018-01-01
9
1
91
105
10.22044/jme.2017.5790.1390
1012
Prediction of ultimate strength of shale using artificial neural network
S. Moshrefi
s_moshrefii@yahoo.com
1
K. Shahriar
k.shahriar@aut.ac.ir
2
A. Ramezanzadeh
aramezanzadeh@shahroodut.ac.ir
3
K. Goshtasbi
goshtasb@modares.ac.ir
4
Department of Mining Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Mining and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
A rock failure criterion is very important for prediction of the ultimate strength in rock mechanics and geotechnics; it is determined for rock mechanics studies in mining, civil, and oil wellborn drilling operations. Also shales are among the most difficult to treat formations. Therefore, in this research work, using the artificial neural network (ANN), a model was built to predict the ultimate strength of shale, and comparison was made with support vector machine (SVM), multiple linear regression models, and the widely used conventional polyaxial failure criteria in the stability analysis of rock structures, Drucker-Prager, and Mogi-Coulomb. For building the model, the corresponding results of triaxial and polyaxial tests have been performed on shales by various researchers. They were collected from reliable published articles. The results obtained showed that a feed forward back propagation multi-layer perceptron (MLP) was used and trained using the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm, and the 2-4-1 architecture with root-mean-square-error (RMSE) of 24.41 exhibits a better performance in predicting the ultimate strength of shale in comparison with the investigated models. Also for further validation, triaxial tests were performed on the deep shale specimens. They were prepared from the Ramshire oilfield in SW Iran. The results obtained were compared with ANN, SVM, multiple linear regression models, and the conventional failure criterion prediction. They showed that the ANN model predicted ultimate strength with a minimum error and RMSE being equal to 43.81. Then the model was used for prediction of the threshold broken pressure shale layer in the Gachsaran oilfield in Iran. For this, a vertical and horizontal stress was calculated based on a depth of shale layer. The threshold broken pressure was calculated for the beginning and ending of a shale layer to be 154.21 and 167.98 Mpa, respectively.
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1012_dd05eada9dcd60e83ab50b7b9ff8bf0f.pdf
Neural Network
failure criterion
shale
ultimate strength
Support Vector Machine
eng
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
2018-01-01
9
1
107
116
10.22044/jme.2017.5815.1393
978
Interactional effects of bubble size, particle size, and collector dosage on bubble loading in column flotation
A. Eskanlou
a.eskanlou@gmail.com
1
M. R. Khalesi
mrkhalesi@modares.ac.ir
2
M. Abdollahy
minmabd@modares.ac.ir
3
M. Hemmati Chegeni
m.hemmatichegeni@arakut.ac.ir
4
Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Mining Engineering Department, Arak University of Technology, Arak, Iran
The success of flotation operation depends upon the thriving interactions of chemical and physical variables. In this work, the effects of particle size, bubble size, and collector dosage on the bubble loading in a continuous flotation column were investigated. In other words, this work was mainly concerned with the evaluation of the true flotation response to the changes in the operating variables in column flotation. Two bubble sizes of 0.8 and 1.8 mm, three size fractions of 63-106, 106-150, and 150-300 μm, and three different dosages of dodecylamine, as the collector, were tested. According to the results obtained, the particle size fraction of 106-150 μm had the maximum bubble loading for bubble diameter of 1.8 mm, while the particle size of 63-106 μm had the maximum bubble loading for bubble diameter of 0.8 mm. It was also shown that increasing the bubble diameter from 0.8 to 1.8 mm increased the bubble loading in all the particle size fractions and collector dosages. However, the mass loading of air bubbles was strongly related to the collector dosage (contact angle), especially for coarse particles. The amount of collector dosage had an upper limit due to the clustering event, which significantly affected the bubble loading. The clustering was found to be more important in the presence of small particles due to a higher number of particles attached to the bubble surface. It was shown that such interactions of variables of true flotation could reasonably be monitored by the bubble loading measurement.
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_978_a72952e72392dc80cc7dfda449ff1d5d.pdf
column flotation
bubble loading
bubble size
Particle size
collector dosage
eng
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
2018-01-01
9
1
117
126
10.22044/jme.2017.5833.1394
1077
Numerical modeling of hydraulic fracturing in carbonate rocks of Bangestan reservoir
A. Akrami
en_akrami@yahoo.com
1
M. Hosseini
ma.hosseini@eng.ikiu.ac.ir
2
H. Sodeifi
baboori2000@yahoo.com
3
Department of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
Department of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
Department of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
Hydraulic fracturing is used in the oil industry in order to increase the index of production and processing in the wells whose efficiencies have been dropped due to a long-term harvest or the rocks around the wells are of low permeability. Since the hydraulic fracturing operation is costly, it is of special importance to the project managers to determine the pressure required for hydraulic fracturing and the suitable pump for this operation. The numerical modelings used in this work are aimed to investigate the fracture pressure in the carbonate rocks of Bangestan reservoir in Ahvaz, Iran, and to determine a relationship between the pressure required for fracturing and the confining pressure. In this work, unlike the other ones in this field, the developed numerical models had no initial crack or fracture, and the path of the crack and how the crack grows were studied without any pre-determination and presumption. The results obtained show that, in most cases, the crack starts from the central part of the sample, and is extended to its two ends. The crack extension direction was along the borehole axis inside the sample and perpendicular to the lateral stress. The numerical modeling results were well-consistent with the experimental ones, indicating that the pump capacity constraints in the laboratory could be overcome through numerical modelings.
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1077_fb553232e09aff29bb919a76d08c2caf.pdf
Hydraulic Fracturing
Numerical Modeling
fracture pressure
eXtended Finite Element Method
eng
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
2018-01-01
9
1
127
141
10.22044/jme.2016.662
662
A quantitative model for evaluation and classification of blastings in open-pit mines
Seyyed M. Hoseini
m.hoseini@znu.ac.ir
1
F. Sereshki
f.sereshki@gmail.com
2
M. Ataei
ataei@shahroodut.ac.ir
3
Faculty of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
Faculty of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
Faculty of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
By evaluation of the blasting results, a proper blast pattern can be presented. It is, therefore, essential to employ a reliable method to evaluate blastings for the effective control and optimization of the main cycle operations. This paper aims to propose a criterion for evaluating the blasting results such as the fragmentation, muckpile condition, back-break, and fly rock, and to make a possible comparison between the blast parameters including the blasting pattern, explosives used, hole depths, and volume of the blasted rocks in the lead and zinc mine in Angouran (Iran). Using the global criterion, making the decision matrix dimensionless, and defining the appropriate conditions for the results obtained, a scalar value is devoted for the blasts, whose larger values denote a larger deviation from the proper blasting conditions and express undesirable blasts regarding the blasting results. By taking into consideration the mining operation conditions and weights of the results obtained, the influence of the results obtained on the mining operation index is also investigated using the genetic algorithm. Furthermore, by composing the weighted decision matrix, the blastings are evaluated and classified. Analyzing the results obtained for blastings in the Angouran mine reveals that the proposed method is an effective approach for evaluation of the blasting results and comparison of the blasts.
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_662_0ac299c9ab3ea9fb39b8d910a03a3cfb.pdf
Blasting Evaluation
Classification
Blasting Results
Mining Operation Index
eng
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
2018-01-01
9
1
143
152
10.22044/jme.2017.5858.1397
1035
An innovative application of (NiXZnX–X Fe2O4) Mineral nanoparticles for adsorption of Malachite green dye from wastewater effluents
M. R. Heydartaemeh
m.heydartaeme@gmail.com
1
President & CEO at NanoMineTech Co., Tehran, Iran
In this research work, the Ni-Zn Ferrite Mineral Nanoparticles (NZFMN), as a novel nanoadsorbent, was used for the removal of the Green Malachite (GM) dye from aqueous solutions by in a batch and fixed bed column. Firstly, the NZFMN adsorption properties were investigated. The effects of the process parameters including the contact time, adsorbent dosage, solution pH, and GM initial concentration were also studied. Thence, GM was quantitatively evaluated using the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms and the pseudo-first- and second-order models. The adsorption data for the adsorption equilibrium was found to be described well using the Freundlich isotherm model. The results obtained for the AFM and SEM analyses showed that the particle size was less than 100 nm. Also the BET analysis showed that the surface area for NZFMN was 120 . The results obtained also showed that the adsorption capacity and removal percentage of GM on NZFMN from wastewater was about 90%. Consequently, NZFMN was found to be a good adsorbent for wastewater purification.
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1035_1c6913a8ceb2dc6f2575b244786b5951.pdf
(NiXZnX–X Fe2O4) Mineral Nanoparticles
Green Malachite dye
Adsorption
Wastewater Treatment
eng
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
2018-01-01
9
1
153
167
10.22044/jme.2017.5904.1405
1056
Spatial modelling of zonality elements based on compositional nature of geochemical data using geostatistical approach: a case study of Baghqloom area, Iran
S. Talesh Hosseini
sajjad_h_1992@yahoo.com
1
O. Asghari
o.asghari@ut.ac.ir
2
Seyed R. Ghavami Riabi
rghavami2@yahoo.com
3
Faculty of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
Simulation and Data Processing Laboratory, Department of Mining, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
Due to the existence of a constant sum of constraints, the geochemical data is presented as the compositional data that has a closed number system. A closed number system is a dataset that includes several variables. The summation value of variables is constant, being equal to one. By calculating the correlation coefficient of a closed number system and comparing it with an open number system, one can see an increase in the values of the closed number system, which is false. Such features of this data prevent the application of standard statistical techniques to process the data. Therefore, several methods have been proposed for transforming the data from closed to open number systems. There are various geostatistical methods consisting of estimation and simulation methods in order to model a deposit. Geostatistical simulations can produce various models for a deposit with different probability percentages. The most applicable geostatistical simulation method is the sequential Gaussian simulation technique, which is highly flexible. In this work, 392 Litho-geochemical data of the Baghqloom region of Kerman in Iran consisting of 20 elements were at first converted using an open number system. Afterwards, the elements that were helpful for exploring the area and were normally standard were simulated for 100 times. After the simulations, the valid output was chosen using geostatistical validation. The maps derived from the simulations revealed the enriched concentrations of mineralization elements in the central regions.
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1056_7e934bece2c1da5ee1911b692107604b.pdf
Compositional Data
Closed and Open Number System
Geostatistical simulation
Sequential Gaussian Simulation
Baghqloom-Kerman
eng
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
2018-01-01
9
1
169
182
10.22044/jme.2017.5950.1408
991
Long-term stability analysis of goaf area in longwall mining using minimum potential energy theory
M. Rezaei
m.rezaei@uok.ac.ir
1
Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
Estimation of the height of caved and fractured zones above a longwall panel along with the stability conditions of the goaf area are very crucial to determine the abutment stresses, ground subsidence, and face support as well as designing the surrounding gates and intervening pillars. In this work, the height of caving-fracturing zone above the mined panel is considered as the height of destressed zone (HDZ). The long-term estimation of this height plays a key role in the accurate determination of maximum ground surface subsidence and the amount of transferred loads towards the neighbouring solid sections. This paper presents a new stability analysis model of caved material system in the goaf area. For this aim, a theoretical energy-based model of HDZ determination in long-term condition is developed. Then the stability condition of the caved material system is investigated using the principle of minimum potential energy. On the basis of the actual data gathered from the literature, the unstable time period of the caved material system is also calculated. Moreover, the effects of time- and temperature-related parameters and constant coefficients as well as their inherent relations with HDZ are evaluated. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis shows that the two temperature-related constants material constant and time are the most effective variables in HDZ, and the slope of material hardening is the least effective one. The estimated HDZ and the stability time of the caved materials can be successfully applied to determine the induced stress and the maximum surface subsidence, respectively, due to longwall mining.
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_991_dc18c28e9d1bb02d5690d0812aeb808e.pdf
Longwall Mining
Height of Destressed Zone
Caved Material System
Minimum Potential Energy
Stability Time
eng
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
2018-01-01
9
1
183
194
10.22044/jme.2017.5969.1413
1016
Field study on Re and heavy metal phytoextraction and phytomining potentials by native plant species growing at Sarcheshmeh copper mine tailings, SE Iran
S. Tabasi
samiratabasi@aut.ac.ir
1
H. Hassani
hhassani@aut.ac.ir
2
A. R. Azadmehr
a_azadmehr@aut.ac.ir
3
Mining and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran
Mining and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran
Mining and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran
In the present work, we aimed to focus on the identification and characterization of the heavy metal-tolerant plant species growing spontaneously at the tailings site of the Sarcheshmeh copper mine, south of Iran. Our aim was to find the plant species that were potentially useful for phytoextraction purposes. The concentrations of As, Cu, Mo, Ni, Zn, and Re were analyzed in soil as well as in the shoots and roots of plant species separately by an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP–OES). The mean concentrations of As, Cu, Mo, Ni, Zn, and Re in soil were found to be 18.44±13.41, 1280±500.95, 25.06±13.33, 32.9±14.39, 251.82±95.82, and 1.7±0.78 mg kg-1, respectively. The translocation factor (TF) and the bioaccumulation factor (BCF) were defined and used to assess the amount of the elements accumulated in the shoots and roots of each plant species and to evaluate their potential for phytoextraction purposes. Based upon the results obtained and using the most common criteria, T. ramosissima, C. dactylon, A. leucoclada, and Z. fabago could strongly tolerate and extremely accumulate multiple metal(loid)s. Also Salsola kali, C. dactylon, A. leucoclada, and Z. fabago could be classified as hyperaccumulators for Re with TF and BCF greater than one and ten, respectively. The results of this work should be further developed in order to confirm the potential use of these species in phytoextraction programs.
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1016_2d17d484e301e67336032b0540f05729.pdf
soil metal concentration
Translocation factor
bioaccumulation factor
hyperaccumulation plants
eng
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
2018-01-01
9
1
195
208
10.22044/jme.2017.909
909
Evaluation of effective factors in window optimization of fry analysis to identify mineralization pattern: Case study of Bavanat region, Iran
R. Ghasemi
mrghasemi20@yahoo.com
1
B. Tokhmechi
tokhmechi@alumni.ut.ac.ir
2
G. Borg
gregor.borg@geo.uni-halle.de
3
Faculty of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
Faculty of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
Institute for Geosciences and Geography, Martin Luther University, Halle-Wittenberg, Germany
The known ore deposits and mineralization trends are important key exploration criteria in mineral exploration within a specific region. Fry analysis has conventionally been considered as a suitable method to determine the mineralization trends related to linear structures. Based upon literature sources, to date, no investigation has been carried out that includes the Sensitivity Analysis of Feature's Number (SAFN), Sensitivity Analysis of Window Size (SAWS), and Sensitivity Analysis of Spatial Distribution (SASD) of Fry analysis related to mineral locations. In this work, SAFN, SAWS, and SASD are performed by moving several different sub-windows among the main window in order to identify the main trends of mineralization by Fry analysis in the Bavanat region of Iran, which is qualified by its regional and local faults pattern. Based upon our investigation, the effectiveness of the window size and the number of features on Fry analysis are 15-30%. The determined main trends of sub-windows increase, whereas its distribution function of Fry outputs is more similar to the distribution function of Fry outputs of the main window. Moreover, the directions of rose diagrams could be changed due to the edge effects of marginal features around the selected window. However, by selecting an appropriate window, this problem can be solved. Additionally, by an appropriate window selection, the most suitable regional situation is an area that contains the largest number of deposits with a similar metallogenetic origin. Based upon our investigation, the distribution function of the Fry outputs is the main factor that directly controls the identified mineralization pattern of the selected windows.
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_909_b1cccf2979e05375f464db558a2301d6.pdf
Mineral Exploration by Fry Analysis
Sensitivity Analysis
Mineralization Trend
Window Size
Features Number
eng
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
2018-01-01
9
1
209
227
10.22044/jme.2017.6120.1426
1017
A comparative study of fractal models and U-statistic method to identify geochemical anomalies; case study of Avanj porphyry system, Central Iran
B. Shokouh Saljoughi
b.shokouh@aut.ac.ir
1
A. Hezarkhani
ardehez@aut.ac.ir
2
E. Farahbakhsh
e.farahbakhsh@aut.ac.ir
3
Mining and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran
Mining and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran
Mining and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran
The most significant aspect of a geochemical exploration program is to define and separate the anomalous values from the background. In the past decades, geochemical anomalies have been identified by means of various methods. Most of the conventional statistical methods aiming at defining the geochemical concentration thresholds for separating anomalies from the background have limited the efficiency in the areas with complex geological settings. In this work, three methods including the Concentration-Area (C-A) and Spectrum-Area (S-A) fractal models, and the U-statistic method are applied to identify the geochemical anomalies in Avanj porphyry system due to a complex geological and tectonic setting. The results obtained show that the S-A and U-statistic methods present more acceptable outputs than the C-A method. The C-A model acts well to identify the geochemical anomalies within a region including a simple geochemical background; however, the model has limitations within a region including a complex geological setting, where each sub-area is characterized by different geochemical fields. The U-statistic method, by considering the location of sampling points, their spatial relation, and radius of influence for each point in the estimation of anomaly location, overcomes the limitations of the C-A model. The S-A model is a powerful tool to decompose mixed geochemical patterns into a geochemical anomaly map and a varied geochemical background map. The output of this method shows the analysis of geochemical data in the frequency domain, which can provide new exploratory information that may not be revealed in the spatial domain. Eventually, it can be pointed out that the accuracy of the S-A fractal model for determining the thresholds is higher than the other two methods mentioned.
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1017_89d9327089085a5c3560d1a45ce2e658.pdf
C-A fractal
S-A Multi-Fractal
Geochemical Anomaly
Anomaly separation
U-statistic
Avanj porphyry system
eng
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
2018-01-01
9
1
229
242
10.22044/jme.2017.6128.1427
1046
Application of alteration index and zoning for Pb-Znexploration in Haft-Savaran area, Khomein, Iran
N. Zandy Ilghani
nastaran_zandy@yahoo.com
1
F. Ghadimi
drghadimi@yahoo.com
2
M. Ghomi
3
Department of Mining Engineering, Arak University of Technology, Arak, Iran
Department of Mining Engineering, Arak University of Technology, Arak, Iran
Department of Mining Engineering, Arak University of Technology, Arak, Iran AND Mining and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran
The Haft-Savaran Pb-Zn mineralization zone with the lower Jurassic age is located in the southern basin of Arak and Malayer-Isfahan metallogenic belt of Iran. Based upon the geological map of the Haft-Savaran area, the sandstone and shale of lower Jurassic are the main rocks of Pb-Zn deposit. In this area, 170samples were taken from 33 boreholes, and44 elements were measured by the ICP-MS method. Adaptation of the alteration index and Pb–Zn mineralization was investigated in this work. The model was created based on the Sericitic, Spitz-Darling, Alkali, Hashimoto, and Silicification Indices in all boreholes. This work showed that the Sericite, Hashimoto, Spitz-Darling, and Silicification indices increased around mineralization, and the alkali index decreased around it. Development of the alteration indices indicates that direction of the ore-bearing solution is NE-SW, and that this trend is consistent with the faults in the area. Based upon the 3D models and other data interpretations, Pb–Zn and elements such as Fe, Mn, Cr, and Ni have deposited within the alteration zones.
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1046_6175845c5fd33bf57e342cc32450d7a7.pdf
Alteration halos
Alteration Index
Pb-Zn mineralization
Haft-Savaran
eng
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
2018-01-01
9
1
243
254
10.22044/jme.2017.6166.1433
1036
Studying effects of ion exchange resin structure and functional groups on Re(VII) adsorption onto Purolite A170 and Dowex 21K
M. B. Fathi
fathi.bagher@gmail.com
1
B. Rezai
rezai@aut.ac.ir
2
E. K. Alamdari
alamdarie@aut.ac.ir
3
R. D. Alorro
richard.aloro@curtin.edu.au
4
Mining and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran
Mining and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran
Mining and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran
Department of Mining Engineering and Metallurgical Engineering, Western Australian School of Mines, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, Kalgoorlie, WA, Australia
The effects of the functional groups and structures of two different resins, weak base/macroporous and strong base/gel type, Purolite A170 and Dowex 21K on the adsorption properties of Re(VII) ions were investigated experimentally and described by the isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic modeling. In this regard, four widely used adsorption isotherm models including Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) were subjected to the sorption data in order to describe the reactions involved. Evaluating the correlation coefficients showed that the Freundlich and D-R isotherm models provided the best fit. The Langmuir isotherm capacities (qm) indicated that the perrhenate ion (ReO4-) adsorption was higher for the weak base/macroporous type resin rather than the others (166.67 mg/g and 142.86 mg/g, respectively). Moreover, the results of the EDX studies were in agreement with the previous results. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetics was demonstrated through fitting the data into different mechanisms, among which the pseudo-second-order mechanism was found to be successful for both resins; however, in the case of Dowex 21K, the rate of perrhenate ion uptake was more rapid than that for Purolite A170. Evaluation of the thermodynamic parameters also showed that the reaction mechanism was different for each case and that the adsorption of rhenium on Dowex 21K became more feasible with increase in temperature due to negative values for ΔH.
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1036_b1a8a8091ad1a42295dcb39244e2d1e6.pdf
rhenium
Purolite A170
Dowex 21K
Adsorption mechanism
eng
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
2018-01-01
9
1
255
275
10.22044/jme.2017.6216.1437
1060
Multivariate geostatistical estimation using minimum spatial cross-correlation factors (Case study: Cubuk Andesite quarry, Ankara, Turkey)
B. Sohrabian
babak_sohrabian@hacettepe.edu.tr
1
R. Mikaeil
reza.mikaeil@gmail.com
2
R. Hasanpour
ra.hasanpour@gmail.com
3
Y. Ozcelik
yilmaz@hacettepe.edu.tr
4
Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Urmia University of Technology, Urmia, Iran
Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Urmia University of Technology, Urmia, Iran
Institute for Tunnelling and Construction Management, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany
Hacettepe University, Department of Mining Engineering, Ankara, Turkey
The quality properties of andesite (Unit Volume Weight, Uniaxial Compression Strength, Los500, etc.) are required to determine the exploitable blocks and their sequence of extraction. However, the number of samples that can be taken and analyzed is restricted, and thus the quality properties should be estimated at unknown locations. Cokriging has been traditionally used in the estimation of spatially cross-correlated variables. However, it can face unsolvable matrices in its algorithm. An alternative to cokriging is to transform variables into spatially orthogonal factors, and then to apply kriging to them. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is one of the methods that can be used to generate these factors. However, ICA is applicable to zero lag distance so that using methods with distance parameter in their algorithms would be advantageous. In this work, Minimum Spatial Cross-correlation (MSC) was applied to six mechanical properties of Cubuk andesite quarry located in Ankara, Turkey, in order to transform them into approximately orthogonal factors at several lag distances. The factors were estimated at 1544 (5 m × 5 m) regular grid points using the kriging method, and the results were back-transformed into the original data space. The efficiency of the MSC-kriging was compared with Independent Component kriging (IC-kriging) and cokriging through cross-validation test. All methods were unbiased but the MSC-kriging outperformed the IC-kriging and cokriging because of having the lowest mean errors and the highest correlation coefficients between the estimated and the observed values. The estimation results were used to determine the most profitable blocks and the optimum direction of extraction.
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1060_6a0858ac3f62462aad691c210eae8a5d.pdf
Spatial cross-correlation
Kriging
Variogram
Building stone
eng
Shahrood University of Technology
Journal of Mining and Environment
2251-8592
2251-8606
2018-01-01
9
1
277
292
10.22044/jme.2017.919
919
Application of concentration gradient coefficients in mining geochemistry: A comparison of copper mineralization in Iran and Canada
S. Safari Sinegani
s.safaris@yahoo.com
1
M. Ziaii
mziaii@shahroodut.ac.ir
2
M. Ghoorchi
m.ghoorchi@gmail.com
3
M. Sadeghi
martiya.sadeghi@sgu.se
4
Faculty of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
Faculty of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Department of Mineral Resources, Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden
In this work, the concentration gradient (CG) analysis of local-scale exploration for Porphyry-Cu deposits is applied in two zones using the G(Vz) index (CG(Zn*Pb)/CG(Cu*Mo)). The first zone is covered by a 1:2000 map of the Sungun and Astamal areas in NW Iran and the second one in the Inza area in British Columbia, Canada. The rock samples are taken from Sungun and Astamal and the soil samples are taken from Inza. The Inza samples are analyzed for Cu, Pb, Zn, and Mo elements by the atomic absorption method, while the rock samples of Astamal and Sungun are analyzed for Cu, Pb, Zn, Mo, Ag, As, and Sb elements. The indices of gradient geochemical zonality (G(Vz)) of multi-elements around the mineral deposits and their spatial associations with particular geological, geochemical, and structural factors are the critical aspects that must be considered in mineral exploration. The values for the G(Vz) indices allow a distinction between the sub-ore and supra-ore anomalies, which are associated with Zone Dispersed Mineralization (ZDM) and Blind Mineralization (BM), respectively. For a comparative identification of BM and ZDM, a supra-ore (Pb*Zn) anomaly, a sub-ore (Cu*Mo) anomaly, and Vz maps are used in place of the mining geochemistry representing the supra-ore gradient anomaly, sub-ore gradient anomaly and G(Vz) map. The G(Vz) model outperforms the Vz model. The introduced technique allows for a computational distinction between the BM and ZDM ore mineralizations without exploration drilling. Prior to writing this paper, the blind porphyry-Cu mineralization was intersected at depth through borehole exploration in a highly prospective zone delineated by the G(Vz) model. The results obtained confirm the usefulness of the G(Vz) modeling for local-scale targeting of blind mineral deposits.
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_919_29d82ae3a937c71e32da7229e4dacf35.pdf
Sub-Ore Gradient Anomaly
Supra-Ore Gradient Anomaly
Sungun and Astamal (Iran)
Inza (Canada)