Shahrood University of TechnologyJournal of Mining and Environment2251-85927120160101Kinetics of Sphalerite Leaching by Sodium Nitrate in Sulfuric Acid11245410.22044/jme.2016.454ENM.HasaniMining Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IranSeyed M. J.KoleiniMining Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IranA.KhodadadiMining Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IranJournal Article20140701In the present work, the extraction of zinc from a sphalerite concentrate using sodium nitrate as an oxidant in a sulfuric acid solution was investigated. The effective parameters such as the temperature, sulfuric acid and sodium nitrite concentrations, stirring speed, particle size, and solid/liquid (S/L) ratio were analyzed. The dissolution rate increased with increase in the sulfuric acid and sodium nitrite concentrations and temperature but decreased with increase in the particle size and S/L ratio. Moreover, the stirring speed had a significant effect on the leaching rate. Under the optimum conditions, 74.11% of zinc was obtained. The kinetic data obtained was analyzed by the shrinking core model (SCM). A new SCM variant captured the kinetic data more appropriately. Based on this model, the activities of the reactants control the diffusion but the two concentrations affect the second order reaction rate or diffusion in both directions. At 75 ˚C, the R<sup>2</sup> values in the surface chemical reactions and diffusion were 0.78 and 0.89, respectively. Using the new model, however, the R<sup>2</sup> value 0.989 was obtained. The reaction orders with respect to [H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>], [NaNO<sub>3</sub>], S/L ratio, and particle size were 1.603, 1.093, ‒0.9156, and ‒2.177, respectively. The activation energy for the dissolution was 29.23 kJ/mol.Shahrood University of TechnologyJournal of Mining and Environment2251-85927120160101Extension of Excavation Damaged Zone Due to Longwall Working Effect132436910.22044/jme.2016.369ENH.MohammadiMining Engineering Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, IranM. A.Ebrahimi FarsangiMining Engineering Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, IranH.JalalifarMining Engineering Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, IranA. R.AhmadiMechanical Engineering Department, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, IranA.JavaheriNegin Coal Company of Tabas, Tabas, IranJournal Article20140916In advance longwall mining, the safety of mine network, production rate, and consequently, economic conditions of a mine are dependent on the stability conditions of gate roadways. The gate roadway stability is a function of two important factors: 1) characteristics of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) above the gate roadway and 2) loading effect due to the caving zone (CZ) above the longwall working, which can extend the EDZ size. Generally, due to the coal seam dip, the failure possibility of main gate roadway is more severe than tail gate roadway. The aim of this work is to determine the longwall working effect on the EDZ extension above main gate roadway. To achieve this purpose, considering three factors involved in the CZ characteristics, the coal seam properties (dip and thickness) and the geomechanical properties of hangingwall, a new geometrical model is developed. Then, based on the geometrical calculations, a new relationship is presented to determine the working influence coeffiecint. Furthermore, taking into account the new geometrical model, an algorithm is suggested for the stability analysis of main gate roadways. Validation of the new geometrical model is carried out by the instrumentation and monitoring results of a longwall working carried out in the Parvade-2 coal mine of Tabas, Tabas, Iran. The results obtained show that there is a good agreement between the values obtained by the new model and the actual measured values. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is carried out on the effects of pillar width, bearing capacity of support system, and coal seam dip.Shahrood University of TechnologyJournal of Mining and Environment2251-85927120160101Probabilistic analysis of stability of chain pillars in Tabas coal mine in Iran using Monte Carlo simulation253546510.22044/jme.2016.465ENM.NajafiDepartment of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, IranSeyed M. E.JalaliSchool of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, IranF.SereshkiSchool of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, IranA.Yarahmadi BafghiDepartment of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, IranJournal Article20140929Performing a probabilistic study rather than a determinist one is a relatively easy way to quantify the uncertainty in an engineering design. Due to the complexity and poor accuracy of the statistical moment methods, the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method is wildly used in an engineering design. In this work, an MCS-based reliability analysis was carried out for the stability of the chain pillars in the Tabas coal mine, located in Iran. For this purpose, the chain pillar strengths were calculated using the Madden formula, the vertical stress on the chain pillars was determined by an empirical method, and a numerical modeling was performed using the FLAC3D software. The results obtained for the probabilistic stability analysis of the chain pillars showed that the failure probability obtained for the designed pillars by applying the MCS method were approximately the same as that obtained by the advanced second moment (ASM) method, and the values obtained varied between 12 and 18 percent.Shahrood University of TechnologyJournal of Mining and Environment2251-85927120160101Development of a mechanical earth model in an Iranian off-shore gas field374645710.22044/jme.2016.457ENE.BozorgiIslamic Azad University, Science and Research Campus, Tehran, IranD.JavaniImam Khomeini International University, Ghazvin, IranM.RastegarniaSchool of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, IranJournal Article20141109Wellbore instability is a quite common event during drilling, and causes many problems such as stuck pipe and lost circulation. It is primarily due to the inadequate understanding of the rock properties, pore pressure, and earth stress environment prior to well construction. This study aims to use the existing relevant logs, drilling, and other data from offset wells to construct a precise mechanical earth model (MEM) describing the pore pressure, stress magnitudes and orientations, and formation mechanical properties of South Pars Gas field. Since the core test data, MDT/XPT data, and LOT/XLOT data were not available to calibrate the developed model, each component of the model was determined using a range of existing methods and relations, and then the wellbore instability was analyzed based on the developed MEM and the Mogi-Coulomb failure criterion. The predicted incidents such as the lost circulation and tight hole were then compared with the caliper log and reported drilling events to determine the consistency of the model. Since the stability analysis based on the developed MEM had the most agreement with the caliper log and reported drilling events, the equations presented by Eaton and Zoback had good estimations of the pore pressure and rock strengths. Also the estimated horizontal stresses were precise enough to enable the constructed MEM to predict the wellbore instabilities. The stress regime in the field of study was strike-slip, which is frequently specified in the industrial technical reports of the studied field. Finally, it was concluded that the Mogi-Coulomb failure criterion minimized the conservative nature of the mud pressure prediction due to the consideration the strengthening effect of the intermediate stress.Shahrood University of TechnologyJournal of Mining and Environment2251-85927120160101A New Approach for Obtaining Settling Velocity in a Thickener Using Statistical Regression: A Case Study475646610.22044/jme.2016.466ENM.Hosseini NasabDepartment of Mining Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, IranJournal Article20150108In this research work, the parameters affecting the settling velocity within the thickeners were studied by introducing an equivalent shape factor. Several thickener feed samples of different densities including copper, lead and zinc, and coal were prepared. The settling tests were performed on the samples, and the corresponding settling curves were plotted. Using the linear regression analysis, the Chein's equation was fitted to the experimental data in order to obtain the equivalent shape factors for the different minerals. Moreover, the relations between the equivalent shape factors and the settling parameters were investigated. The R-squared values for the fits proved the capability of the Chein’s equation to fit well on the experimental data (0.96Shahrood University of TechnologyJournal of Mining and Environment2251-85927120160101Negative impacts of mine exploitations on rural regions of Tekab Township576646710.22044/jme.2016.467ENGh.MojarradiDepartment of Agricultural Extension, Communication and Rural Development, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, IranR.RezaeiDepartment of Agricultural Extension, Communication and Rural Development, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, IranA.KetabiDepartment of Agricultural Extension, Communication and Rural Development, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, IranJournal Article20150218This descriptive analytical survey was aimed to study the negative impacts of mine exploitations carried out in the rural regions of the Tekab Township located in Iran. The statistical population of the studied areas consisted of all the heads of the rural households in the villages located in the vicinity of the mines in the Tekab Township (N=2680). According to the Cochran formula, a sample size of 220 was selected using a stratified random sampling technique (n=220). A questionnaire was used to collect the data required. The validity of the questionnaire used was confirmed by a panel of experts. A pilot study was conducted to establish the reliability of the instrument used. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the main scale of the questionnaire including the negative effects of the mine exploitations was equal to 0.94. The results obtained from the factor analysis revealed that five factors including the environmental, social, economic, cultural, and hygiene factors explained 60.19% of the total variances of the negative impacts of the mine exploitations in the rural regions of the Tekab Township.Shahrood University of TechnologyJournal of Mining and Environment2251-85927120160101Joint inversion of ReMi dispersion curves and refraction travel times using particle swarm optimization algorithm677949210.22044/jme.2016.492ENA.ZareanDepartment of Civil Enginnering, Shabestar Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, IranR.PoormirzaeeDepartment of Mining and Material Engineering, Urmia University of Technology, Urmia, IranJournal Article20150311Shear-wave velocity ( ) is an important parameter used for site characterization in geotechnical engineering. However, dispersion curve inversion is challenging for most inversion methods due to its high non-linearity and mix-determined trait. In order to overcome these problems, in this study, a joint inversion strategy is proposed based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The seismic data considered for designing the objects are the Rayleigh wave dispersion curve and seismic refraction travel time. For joint inversion, the objective functions are combined into a single function. The proposed algorithm is tested on two synthetic datasets, and also on an experimental dataset. The synthetic models demonstrate that the joint inversion of Rayleigh wave and travel time return a more accurate estimation of V<sub>S</sub> in comparison with the single inversion Rayleigh wave dispersion curves. To prove the applicability of the proposed method, we apply it in a sample site in the city of Tabriz located in the NW of Iran. For a real dataset, we use refraction microtremor (ReMi) as a passive method for getting the Rayleigh wave dispersion curves. Using the PSO joint inversion, a three-layer subsurface model was delineated.The results obtained for the synthetic datasets and field dataset show that the proposed joint inversion method significantly reduces the uncertainties in the inverted models, and improves the revelation of boundaries.Shahrood University of TechnologyJournal of Mining and Environment2251-85927120160101Impact of mining on groundwater quality in SW Ashanti, Ghana: a preliminary study819549610.22044/jme.2016.496ENC.BempahFaculty of Environmental Sciences and Process Engineering, Chair of Environmental Geology, Brandenburgische Technische Universität, Cottbus, GermanyH-J.VoigtNuclear Chemistry and Environmental Research Center, National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Legon, Accra, GhanaA.EwusiGeological Engineering Department, University of Mines and Technology, Tarkwa-GhanaJournal Article20150423The focus of this research work is on the determination of the impact of mining on the groundwater quality in the historical mining region of SW Ashanti region in Ghana. This work describes the characteristics of the groundwater chemistry and pollution of the aquifer in the gold-ore bearing formation, which is highly weathered and fractured. The fractures control the permeability and depth of the groundwater within the studied area. The concentrations of the major ions and trace elements (As, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn) present are determined in 63 groundwater wells at dry and wet seasons. The results obtained showed that the concentrations of these ions and elements were below the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values for drinking water. However, concentrations of the As and Fe ions were very high above the guideline values. The wells with high As and Fe concentration levels might be located at an apparent rock fractured zone that extends to a nearby mine. Such fractured zones allow groundwater to move more rapidly away from a mine, creating more severe mine-drainage pollution in their paths. The results obtained from this study suggested a possible risk to the population of the studied area, given the toxicities of the As and Fe ions, and the fact that for many people living in the studied area, groundwater is a main source of their water supply.Shahrood University of TechnologyJournal of Mining and Environment2251-85927120160101Estimation of Cadmium and Uranium in a stream sediment from Eshtehard region in Iran using an Artificial Neural Network9710750010.22044/jme.2016.500ENF.Razavi RadFaculty of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering , Yazd University, Yazd, Iran.F.Mohammad TorabFaculty of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering , Yazd University, Yazd, Iran.A.AbdollahzadehFaculty of Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran.Journal Article20150425Considering the importance of Cd and U as pollutants of the environment, this study aims to predict the concentrations of these elements in a stream sediment from the Eshtehard region in Iran by means of a developed artificial neural network (ANN) model. The forward selection (FS) method is used to select the input variables and develop hybrid models by ANN. From 45 input candidates, 13 and 14 variables are selected using the FS method for Cadmium and Uranium, respectively. Considering the correlation coefficient (R<sup>2</sup>) values, both the ANN and FS-ANN models are acceptable for estimation of the Cd and U concentrations. However, the FS-ANN model is superior because the R<sup>2</sup> values for estimation of Cd and U by the FS-AAN model is higher than those for estimation of these elements by the ANN model. It is also shown that the FS-ANN model is preferred in estimating the Cd and U population due to reduction in the calculation time as a consequence of having less input variables.Shahrood University of TechnologyJournal of Mining and Environment2251-85927120160101Monitoring and assessment of pollutants resulting from bench-blasting operations10911850210.22044/jme.2016.502ENJ.AbdollahisharifFaculty of Engineering, University of Urmia, Urmia, IranE.BakhtavarDepartment of Mining and Material Engineering, Urmia University of Technology, Urmia, IranH.NourizadehDepartment of Mining Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, IranJournal Article20150523Nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide gases together with dust are known as the major pollutants arising during the blasting operations using the ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) explosive at the Sungun surface mine, located in the northwest of Iran. The pollutants were monitored during some blasting operations at the mine. It was concluded that the gases and dust clouds initially went up to the peak height, and were then released in the direction of wind flow. A large volume of the pollutants in the form of clouds, which fell at the mine and its surrounding environment, was usually discharged again to the atmosphere due to other mining activities. It was also found that all kinds of pollutants at the mine imposed high risks to the ecosystem of the mine. The maximum concentration of the pollutants belonged to the particles with a size more than 20 microns. The southern part of the mine had a more potential vulnerability than its northwestern part, according to the monthly wind rose diagrams of Sungun. The investigations carried out at the mine and its surrounding environment have indicated that the current traditional blasting operations have discharged a considerable amount of pollutants into the mine and the Arasbaran protected area. The current blasting pattern should be improved, especially through analyzing and changing the stemming materials and length, in order to provide a safe environment for the ecosystem of the mine and the Arasbaran area.Shahrood University of TechnologyJournal of Mining and Environment2251-85927120160101Dimensionality analysis of subsurface structures in magnetotellurics using different methods (a case study: oil field in Southwest of Iran)11912646810.22044/jme.2016.468ENM.Filbandi KashkouliSchool of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, IranA.Kamkar RouhaniSchool of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, IranAliMoradzadehSchool of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, IranH.AssiNational Iranian Oil Company (NIOC), Tehran, IranJournal Article20150526Magnetotelluric (MT) method is an electromagnetic technique that uses the earth natural field to map the electrical resistivity changes in subsurface structures. Because of the high penetration depth of the electromagnetic fields in this method (tens of meters to tens of kilometers), the MT data is used to investigate the shallow to deep subsurface geoelectrical structures and their dimensions. In order to have a higher accuracy in modeling the MT data, dimensions of the subsurface structures should be determined. The objective of this research work is to determine the dimensions of subsurface structures in an oil field located in the southwest of Iran. Using parameters such as the normalized weighted index, ellipticity, and Wall's rotational invariant measure, this goal could be achieved. Using the ellipticity factor at the frequency range of 1-320 Hz, the earth can be represented as a 2D form. However, at lower frequencies, the earth should be represented as a 3D form. In most MT stations, the normalized weighted index has indicated that the earth is in a 2D form on the surface or shallow subsurface, although it is represented by a 3D shape at higher depths. In this regard, the Wall's rotational invariant measure shows more heterogeneity. This measure indicates that the earth is in the 2D and 3D forms on the surface or shallow subsurface, and is perfectly 3D at higher depths, although the earth dimensions cannot be determined in some certain frequency ranges. The earth in both the shallow and deep parts of the studied area has a high heterogeneity.Shahrood University of TechnologyJournal of Mining and Environment2251-85927120160101Risk prediction based on a time series case study: Tazareh coal mine12713451410.22044/jme.2016.514ENM.MohseniSchool of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran0000-0002-4279-9303M.AtaeiSchool of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran0000-0002-7016-8170Journal Article20150530In this work, the time series modeling was used to predict the Tazareh coal mine risks. For this purpose, initially, a monthly analysis of the risk constituents including frequency index and incidence severity index was performed. Next, a monthly time series diagram related to each one of these indices was for a nine year period of time from 2005 to 2013. After extrusion of the trend, seasonality, and remainder constituents of the time series modeling, the final time series model of the indices was determined with high precision. The precision level of the resulting model was evaluated using the root mean square error (RMSE) method. The values obtained for the severity index and accident frequency index were 0.001 and 6.400, respectively. Evaluation of the seasonal time series constituent of the frequency index showed that, yearly, most number of accidents occurred in April, and the least one took place in January. Additionally, evaluation of the seasonal time series constituent of the severity index showed that, every year, the severest accidents occurred in October, and the least ones happened in January. Using the final model, a monthly prediction of indices was performed for a four year period of time from 2014 to 2017. Subsequently, using the known mean work hours in the mine, predictions of the number of accidents and the number of work days lost within a similar time period were made. The prediction results showed that in the future, the number of accidents and the number of work days lost would have a down-going trend such that for similar months, annually, an average 22% decrease in the number of accidents and an average 24% decrease in the number of work days lost are expected.Shahrood University of TechnologyJournal of Mining and Environment2251-85927120160101Production of artificial stone slabs using waste granite and marble stone sludge samples13514149110.22044/jme.2016.491ENK.BaraniDepartment of Mining Engineering, Lorestan University, Khorram-Abad, IranH.EsmailiDepartment of Mining Engineering, Lorestan University, Khorram-Abad, IranJournal Article20150603In this work, the waste stone sludge obtained from the granite and marble stone processing factories was used for the manufacture of artificial stones using vibratory compaction in a vacuum environment. The results obtained showed that water absorption and density increased, and the flexure, compressive, and tensile strengths decreased with increase in the content of the waste stone sludge. These results also demonstrated that by combining 50% of stone sludge, 12% of ground quartz, 25% of waste glass, and 13% of resin at a compaction pressure of 12 MPa, a vibration frequency of 30 Hz, and vacuum conditions at 50 mm Hg, artificial stone slabs with a water absorption less than 0.64, a density less than 2.68, a flexure strength more than 45 MPa, a compressive strength more than 90 MPa, and a tensile strength more than 35 MPa can be obtained. The artificial stone slabs obtained in this research work had good density and water absorption, and flexure, compressive, and tensile strengths compared to the natural stones, and thus they can be regarded as the ideal construction materials for covering walls or paving floors.