Journal of Mining and EnvironmentJournal of Mining and Environment
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Feed provided by Journal of Mining and Environment. Click to visit.A new stochastic 3D seismic inversion using direct sequential simulation and co-simulation in a ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_628_111.html
Stochastic seismic inversion is a family of inversion algorithms in which the inverse solution was carried out using geostatistical simulation. In this work, a new 3D stochastic seismic inversion was developed in the MATLAB programming software. The proposed inversion algorithm is an iterative procedure that uses the principle of cross-over genetic algorithms as the global optimization technique. The model perturbation towards the objective function is performed recurring to direct sequential simulation and co-simulation. This new algorithm was applied to a synthetic dataset with and without noise. The results obtained for the inverted impedance were satisfactory in both cases. In addition, a real dataset was chosen to be applied by the algorithm. Good results were achieved regarding the real dataset. For the purpose of validation, blind well tests were done for both the synthetic and real datasets. The results obtained showed that the algorithm was able to produce inverted impedance that fairly matched the well logs. Furthermore, an uncertainty analysis was performed for both the synthetic and real datasets. The results obtained indicate that the variance of acoustic impedance is increased in areas far from the well location.Fri, 30 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +0100Optimization of parameters affecting recovery of copper from Sarcheshmeh low-grade sulfide ore ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_848_0.html
In this work, the parameters affecting the recovery of copper from the low-grade sulfide minerals of Sarcheshmeh Copper Mine were studied. A low-grade sulfide ore was used with a copper grade of 0.25%, which was about 28% of the mineral oxide, and the sulfide minerals made up the rest. Much more sulfide minerals were found to be pyrite and most of the gangue minerals were quartz, anorthite, biotite, and muscovite. In order to investigate, simultaneously, the solids (10 to 20%) and acidity (1.5 to 2.5) and shaking (110 to 150 rpm), the separation of bacteria from Sarcheshmeh Copper Mine was carried out. After adjustment of the sample, bio-leaching tests were performed in accordance with the pattern defined by the software DX7 in shaking flasks, and the Cu recovery was modeled and optimized using the response surface methodology. The influential parameters were comprehensively studied. The central composite design methodology was used as the design matrix to predict the optimal level of these parameters. Then the model equation was optimized. The results obtained showed that increasing solids (from 10 to 20%) was bad for bacteria. The highest copper recovery was equivalent to 69.91%, obtained after 21 days at 35 degrees using the Acidi Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans bacteria and a K9 medium with a pulp density of 10% and pH 1.5.Sun, 15 Jan 2017 20:30:00 +0100Effects of operating parameters on time-dependent ash entrainment behaviour of a sample coal ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_857_111.html
It is well-known that entrainment of particles into the froth is a key factor in the selectivity and performance of the flotation process, especially for fine particle recovery. Since flotation is a continuous process, in this work, the effects of operating parameters on the entrainment of ash materials in a sample coal flotation is investigated from a time-sequence viewpoint. The effects of the pulp solid content, collector concentration, frother concentration, impeller speed, and particle size on the entrainment factor and water recovery at different flotation times are evaluated using a D-optimal response surface experimental design. The experimental work carried out shows that some parameters, especially particle size and pulp density, can yield completely different responses from those reported in the literature. The observed unusual behaviours can be attributed to the entrainment mechanisms and verified by the experimental results. It is also shown that the dominant entrainment mechanism can be varied by time. In addition, the statistical analyses of the experimental design show that the effects of some parameters change during time from the initial to the final stages of the flotation process. The results obtained indicate that the particle size and pulp density are the most important parameters influencing the entrainment rate and water recovery. The effects of the collector and frother concentrations are less on the entrainment and water recovery. In addition, the interaction between the solid percentage and particle size is the only significant mixed effect.Fri, 30 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +0100Modofication of the Sarcheshmeh copper complex flotation circuit in response to a reduction in ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_879_0.html
The new copper processing plant of the Sarcheshmeh copper complex consists of two parallel circuits. After a primary crushing, the ore is sent to a SAG mill, and the product is further ground in a ball mill. The overflow of the hydrocyclones is fed to a flotation circuit that contains 8 rougher tank cells (RCS130), 3 cleaner cells (RCS50), 5 scavenger cells (RCS50), and a flotation column (as recleaner). The circuit was initially designed to process a feed containing 0.8% Cu but due to a change in the ore type, the feed grade decreased to 0.6% Cu. This resulted in a reduction in the final concentrate grade and the recovery from 28% and 85.5% to 24% and 84.4%, respectively. Based on the original design, the copper and silica recovery in the cleaner cells should be 69% and 55%, respectively, but these values increased to 85% and 75% due to a higher retention time. The rather high silica recovery was found to be the main source of the lower final concentrate grade. In order to reduce the retention time of particles in the cleaner cell from 13.7 to 6.9 min, the rougher concentrates of two parallel circuits were fed to only one cleaner-scavenger and regrind circuit. This modification increased the cleaner and final concentrate grade from 15.1% and 24.5% to 17% and 26%, respectively. The overall outcome of the circuit modification was evaluated to be a 10% reduction in the energy consumption without any loss in the overall copper recovery.Sun, 19 Feb 2017 20:30:00 +0100Development of a goal programming model for optimization of truck allocation in open pit mines
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_859_111.html
Truck and shovel operations comprise approximately 60% of the total operating costs in open pit mines. In order to increase productivity and reduce the cost of mining operations, it is essential to manage the equipment used with high efficiency. In this work, the chance-constrained goal programing (CCGP) model presented by Michalakopoulos and Panagiotou is developed to determine an optimal truck allocation plan in open pit mines and reduce the waiting times of trucks and shovels. The developed goal programming (GP) model is established considering four desired goals: “maximizing shovel production”, “minimizing deviations in head grade”, “minimizing deviations in tonnage feed to the processing plants from the desired feed” and “minimizing truck operating costs”. To employ the developed model, a software is prepared in Visual Studio with C# programming language. In this computer program, the CPLEX optimizer software is incorporated for solving the developed goal programing model. The case study of Sungun copper mine is also considered to evaluate the presented GP model and prepared software. The results obtained indicate that the developed model increases the mine production above 20.6% with respect to the traditional truck allocation plan, while meeting the desired grade and the stripping ratio constraints.Fri, 30 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +0100Application of perfect mixing model for simulation of vertical roller mills
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_931_0.html
Vertical roller mills (VRMs) are well-established grinding equipment for various tasks in the coal and cement industry. There are few studies on simulation of VRMs. In this research work, application of perfect mixing model for simulation of a VRM in a cement grinding plant was investigated. Two sampling surveys were carried out on the VRM circuit. The samples and data from the first survey were used for the experimental determination of the breakage function and model calibration. The breakage distribution function of the material was determined by the compressed bed breakage test in a piston-die cell device. The model parameters were back-calculated using the feed and product size distribution data and the breakage distribution function. The model parameters obtained were used for simulation of the second survey and validation of the model. The simulation results showed that the simulated product size distribution curves fitted the measured product curves quite well.Tue, 23 May 2017 19:30:00 +0100Sub-pixel classification of hydrothermal alteration zones using a kernel-based method and ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_781_0.html
Remote sensing image analysis can be carried out at the per-pixel (hard) and sub-pixel (soft) scales. The former refers to the purity of image pixels, while the latter refers to the mixed spectra resulting from all objects composing of the image pixels. The spectral unmixing methods have been developed to decompose mixed spectra. Data-driven unmixing algorithms utilize the reference data called training samples and end-members. The performance of algorithms using training samples can be negatively affected by the curse of dimensionality. This problem is usually observed in the hyperspectral image classification, especially when a low number of training samples, compared to the large number of spectral bands of hyperspectral data, are available. An unmixing method that is not highly impressed by the curse of dimensionality is a promising option. Among all the methods used, Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a more robust algorithm used to overcome this problem. In this work, our aim is to evaluate the capability of a regression mode of SVM, namely Support Vector Regression (SVR), for the sub-pixel classification of alteration zones. As a case study, the Hyperion data for the Sarcheshmeh, Darrehzar, and Sereidun districts is used. The main classification steps rely on 20 field samples taken from the Darrehzar area divided into 12 and 8 samples for training and validation, respectively. The accuracy of the sub-pixel maps obtained demonstrate that SVR can be successfully applied in the curse of dimensional conditions, where the size of the training samples (12) is very low compared to the number of spectral bands (165).Fri, 11 Nov 2016 20:30:00 +0100A new method to consider spatial risk assessment of cross-correlated heavy metals using ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_892_111.html
The soil samples were collected from 170 sampling stations in an arid area in Shahrood and Damghan, characterized by prevalence of mining activity. The levels of Co, Pb, Ni, Cs, Cu, Mn, Sr, V, Zn, Cr, and Tl were recorded in each sampling location. A new method known as min/max autocorrelation factor (MAF) was applied for the first time in the environmental research works to de-correlate these elements before their geo-statistical simulation. The high cross-correlation among some elements, while poor spatial correlation among the others, could have made spectral decomposition of MAFs unstable, resulting in some negative eigenvalues, so it was decided to reduce the dimensionality of the original variables by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The resultant 6 heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Cu, V, Ni, and Co) were converted to their respective MAFs followed by their geo-statistical simulation using Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) independently. Examination of the cross-variograms of MAFs indicated that the resultant factors had been rigorously de-correlated, especially at zero lag and around ∆ lag distance. Several validation checks including reproduction of variograms in data and normal score space, close matching between distribution of MAFs versus simulated realizations, and reproduction of descriptive statistics and data histograms all confirmed that the data values had been honored by this applied method. The results obtained indicated that this method could reproduce the data values as well as the spatial continuity of heavy metals (e.g. semi-variograms) successfully. In addition, this technique is simpler and more computationally efficient than its equivalent sequential Gaussian co-simulation as fitting a linear model of co-regionalization (LMC) is not required in the data-driven MAF method.Fri, 30 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +0100Studying empirical correlation between drilling specific energy and geo-mechanical parameters ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_689_111.html
Multiplicity of the effective factors in drilling reflects the complexity of the interaction between rock mass and drilling bit, which is followed by the dependence of parameters and non-linear relationships between them. Rock mass or, in other words, the formation intended for drilling, as the drilling environment, plays a very essential role in the drilling speed, depreciation of drilling bit, machines, and overall drilling costs. Therefore, understanding the drilling environment and the characteristics of the in-situ rock mass contributes a lot to the selection of the machines. In this work, a 1D geo-mechanical model of different studied wells is built by collecting the geological data, well logs, drilling data, core data, and pressure measurements of the formation fluid pressure in various wells. Having the drilling parameters of each part of the formation, its specific energy is calculated. The specific energy index can be used for predicting the amount of energy consumed for drilling. In order to find the relationship between the drilling specific energy (DSE) and its effective parameters, the multivariate regression model is used. Modeling DSE is done using the multivariate regression, which contains the parameters rock characteristics, well logs, and a combination of these two features. 70% and 30% of the data are, respectively, selected as the training and test for validation. After analyzing the model, the correlation coefficients obtained for the training and test data were, respectively, found to be 0.79 and 0.83. The parameters uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), internal friction angle, and fluid flow are among the most important factors found to affect DSE.Fri, 30 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +0100Prediction of effect of fine particle removal on efficiency of a spiral circuit by size-by-size ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_932_0.html
Partition curves are widely used to determine the spiral separator efficiency. In this work, the partition curves were used in order to investigate the particle transportation to concentrate and tailing streams. Simulation of fine particle removal using the size-by-size partition curves showed that the recovery of gangue particles to concentrate can decrease 8.7%. It also showed that the recovery of valuable particles would increase by 6.5% and reaches 90%. Therefore, pilot-scale tests were conducted to verify the simulations. After removal of fine particles from the feed of spiral separator and treating the removed materials with high-intensity magnetic separator, total mass recovery, iron recovery, and iron grade increased from 71%, 85%, and 54% to 80%, 91%, and 56%, respectively.Tue, 23 May 2017 19:30:00 +0100An improvement in RTM method to image steep dip petroleum bearing structures and its ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_635_0.html
In this paper, first the limitations of the ray-based method and the one-way wave-field extrapolation migration (WEM) in imaging steeply dipping structures are discussed by some examples. Then a new method of the reverse time migration (RTM), used in imaging such complex structures is presented. The proposed method uses a new wave-field extrapolator called the Leapfrog-Rapid Expansion Method (L-REM) for wave-field extrapolation. This improved method also includes a new imaging condition based on Poynting vector for wave-field separation and calculating the reflection angles. Afterwards, the results obtained for the application of the new RTM method are compared with those obtained by the harmonic-source method as a delay shot or plane wave RTM. Finally, the efficiency of these imaging methods is tested using the BP 2004 2D seismic dataset. The results obtained indicate the superiority of the presented RTM method in imaging such steep dip structures in comparison with the other imaging procedures.Mon, 06 Jun 2016 19:30:00 +0100A fuzzy-based prognosis of ore mineralization potentials in Ramand region (Qazvin province)
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The Ramand region is a part of the magmatic belt in Urmieh-Dokhtar structural zone in Iran, located in the SW of BuinـZahra. This area mainly consists of felsic extrusions such as rhyolites and rhyodacites. Argillic alterations with occurrences of mineralized silica veins are abundant in most of the volcanic units. In this research work, we used the GIS facilities for modeling the Ramand geo-spatial databases according to the Fuzzy logic algorithms. The main phase of mineralization occurred in the altered regions and is located near the cross cut fault systems. Therefore, the main criteria for integration were the geological, structural, geophysical, and remotely sensed (Landsat7, ETM+) layers. Also we used a contoured aeromagnetic map for revealing and weighting lineaments. By the Fuzzy techniques applied, all the evidential themes were integrated to prognosis of ore mineralization potentials based on γ = 0.75. As a result, the hydrothermal alterations and their relevant post-magmatic mineralization were introduced in the south and eastern parts of the Ramand region by the fuzzification procedures. Our highlighted recommendation for more exploration activities is focused on the geophysical land surveys (electric and magnetic fields), and the geochemical sampling from mineralized regions in the depth and outcrops of alterations.Fri, 30 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +0100Investigation of leaching kinetics of zinc from a low-grade ore in organic and inorganic acids
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_767_0.html
The leaching kinetics of a low-grade zinc oxide ore in different acid media was investigated with respect to the experimental variables including acid concentration, temperature, liquid to solid (L/S) ratio, and stirring speed. The results obtained showed that the leaching reagent concentration and the reaction temperature exerted significant effects on the extraction of zinc, whereas the L/S ratio and stirring speed exhibited a relatively moderate effect on the leaching rate. The maximum leaching rate with inorganic acids was obtained to be 90.76%, while the maximum zinc recovery with citric acid was determined to be 88.68%. It was found that the zinc leaching process followed the kinetic law of the shrinking core model. It was distinguished that the dissolution rate was controlled by diffusion through the fluid film in the HNO3 medium with the activation energy of 4.38 kJ/mol, whereas when dissolution was performed in the presence of HCl, H2SO4, and citric acid, an intermediate process (i.e. a physico-chemical process) was the rate-controlling step.Thu, 03 Nov 2016 20:30:00 +0100Phytoextraction-based process of metal absorption from soil in mining areas (tailing dams) by ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_897_111.html
The present work was planned to evaluate the phytoextraction of metal mine tailings, Sarcheshmeh copper mine, SE of Iran, by the endemic plant species Medicago sativa L. (Alfalfa). In this pot experiment, we investigated the effects of seven amendments on the growth of alfalfa and uptaking metals from the mine tailings and stream sediment of tailing dam surface. The mean metal concentrations in both the tailing and stream sediment increased in the order of Hg < Te < Ag < Re < Ge < In < GaFri, 30 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +0100Prediction of dispersed mineralization zone in depth using frequency domain of surface ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_912_111.html
Discrimination of the blind and dispersed mineralization deposits is a challenging problem in geochemical exploration. The frequency domain (FD) of the surface geochemical data can solve this important issue. This new exploratory information can be achieved using the interpretation of FD of geochemical data, which is impossible in spatial domain. In this research work, FD of the surface geochemical data is analyzed to decompose the complex geochemical patterns related to the mineral deposits. In order to identify the dispersed mineralization zone in the Chichakloo Pb–Zn deposit, a newly developed approach is proposed based on the coupling of two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) and principal component analysis (PCA). The surface geochemical data is transferred to FD using 2DFT, and two low-pass filters are designed and performed on FD. Then the PCA method is employed on these frequency bands (FBs) separately. This proposed scenario desirably illustrates the relationship between the low frequencies in the surface geochemical distribution map (GDM) and the deep deposits. The informations obtained from the detailed exploration and the exploration drillings such as boreholes confirm the results obtained from this method. This new combined approach is a valuable data-processing tool and pattern-recognition technique in geochemical explorations. This approach is quite inexpensive compared to the traditional exploration methods.Fri, 30 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +0100Determination of geochemical anomalies and gold mineralized stages based on litho-geochemical ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_977_0.html
The Zarshuran Carlin-like gold deposit is located at the Takab Metallogenic belt in the northern part of the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, NW Iran. The high-grade ore bodies are mainly hosted by black shale and cream to gray massive limestone along the NNE-trending extensional fault/fracture zones. The aim of this investigation was to determine and separate the gold mineralized stages based on the surface litho-geochemical Au, Hg, and As data using the Concentration-Area (C-A) fractal model and stepwise factor analysis in the Zarshuran gold deposit. Three mineralized stages were determined by the C-A fractal modeling and factor analysis, which were correlated with the mineralized stages from geological studies. The main stage of Au mineralization was higher than 1.995 ppm, which was correlated with the main sulfidation stage, whereas the As and Hg highly intense anomalies (higher than 6409 and 19 ppm, respectively) were associated with the quartz-sulfide veins and veinlets. The results obtained by the C-A fractal model and stepwise factor analysis showed that the main gold mineralized stage occurred in the southern part of the Zarshuran deposit, which was correlated with the geological particulars.Sun, 16 Jul 2017 19:30:00 +0100Magnetic Nano mineral and acid mine drainage interaction: An experimental study
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_736_111.html
In the environment, two main sources of heavy metals are natural backgrounds derived from parent rocks and anthropogenic contamination including mineral industrial wastes, tailing damps of sulfide mines, agrochemicals, and other outputs of industrial activities and factories. In this work, the physico-chemical aspects of the magnetic Nano- mineral surfaces are studied in contrast to acid mine drainage using the multi- -analytical techniques XRF, XRD, BET, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, and AFM before and after adsorption of toxic elements. According to the results obtained, the FT-IR analysis presents a suitable curve, showing that the adsorption site of the sorption is filled with Ni(II) and Cd(II) ions. The results obtained show that the adsorption reaction is due to the high removal of the toxic elements from acid mine drainages.Fri, 30 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +0100Comparison of various knowledge-driven and logistic-based mineral prospectivity methods to ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_983_0.html
Motivated by the recent successful results of using GIS modeling in a variety of problems related to the geosciences, some knowledge-based methods were applied to a regional scale mapping of the mineral potential, special for Cu-Au mineralization in the Feyz-Abad area located in the NE of Iran. Mineral Prospectivity Mapping (MPM) is a multi-step process that ranks a promising target area for more exploration. In this work, five integration methods were compared consisting of fuzzy, continuous fuzzy, index overlay, AHP, and fuzzy AHP. For this purpose, geological maps, geochemical samples, and geophysics data were collected, and a spatial database was constructed. ETM + images were used to extract the hydroxyl and iron-oxide alterations, and to identify the linear and fault structures and prospective zones in regional scale; ASTER images were used to extract SiO2 index, kaolinite, chlorite, and propylitic alterations in a district scale. All the geological, geochemical, and geophysical data was integrated for MPM by different analysis. The values were determined by expert knowledge or logistic functions. Based upon this analysis, three main exploration targets were recognized in the Feyz-Abad district. Based on field observation, MPM was proved to be valid. The prediction result is accurate, and can provide directions for future prospecting. Among all the methods evaluated in this work, which tend to generate relatively similar results, the continuous fuzzy model seems to be the best fit in the studied area because it is bias-free and can be used to generate reliable target areas.Mon, 24 Jul 2017 19:30:00 +0100A field investigation of application of digital terrestrial photogrammetry to characterize ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_930_111.html
In order to analyze the slope stability in open-pit mines, the structural parameters of rock mass such as persistence and spatial orientation of discontinuities are characterized through field surveys, which involve spending high costs and times as well as posing high risks of rock toppling and rock fall. In the present work, a new application of terrestrial digital photogrammetry is introduced for characterizing the rock mass structural parameters through preparing photogrammetry images from open-pit walls and building stereomodels. The data extracted from processing the stereo-model generations using photogrammetry images with different focal distances are highly consistent with the data collected through field surveys. However, it must be noted that the weather conditions, natural lighting angle, and applied observation scale may considerably affect the results obtained from stereomodel processing. Nevertheless, by taking into account the parameters such as time, cost, and full access to the required data, this new method can effectively be used in the estimation of rock mass structural parameters for analysis of steep slopes in open pits.Fri, 30 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +0100Effect of temperature as well as heating and cooling cycles on rock properties
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_971_0.html
Temperature has a significant role in many actions performed on rocks. An example would be the effect of temperature on rocks in the burial of nuclear waste, geothermal energy extraction, deep oil well drilling, and fires in tunnels. In addition, due to diurnal/nocturnal as well as seasonal temperature variations, rocks undergo a process of heating and cooling. In the present work, the effect of temperature as well as heating and cooling cycles on the rock properties was studied. The utilized samples included tuff, andesite, and sandstone. In addition to natural samples, concrete was also studied in this research work. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of temperature on the tensile strength of rocks and the velocity of longitudinal waves in a single heating and cooling cycle of samples as well as evaluating the effect of the number of heating and cooling cycles on the tensile strength of rocks and the velocity of longitudinal waves. In order to investigate the effect of temperature on the tensile strength of rocks as well as the velocity of longitudinal waves in a single heating and cooling cycle, the samples were heated in a furnace. After cooling the samples, the Brazilian and the sound velocity tests were carried out on them. These tests were conducted at the three temperatures of 100, 200, and 300 °C. In order to examine the effect of the number of heating and cooling cycles on the tensile strength and the velocity of longitudinal waves, the samples were heated up to the temperature of 100 °C and then cooled down in order to reach the room temperature. In this case, the work was conducted in the three modes of 5, 10, and 15 cycles. The test results showed that the velocity of longitudinal waves and the tensile strength of samples decreased but their porosity increased. Reduction in the tensile strength varied in different rocks so that the greatest and lowest reduction in the tensile strength was observed in concrete and andesite, respectively.Sat, 08 Jul 2017 19:30:00 +0100Predicting tensile strength of rocks from physical properties based on support vector ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_824_111.html
The tensile strength (TS) of rocks is an important parameter in the design of a variety of engineering structures such as the surface and underground mines, dam foundations, types of tunnels and excavations, and oil wells. In addition, the physical properties of a rock are intrinsic characteristics, which influence its mechanical behavior at a fundamental level. In this paper, a new approach combining the support vector regression (SVR) with a cultural algorithm (CA) is presented in order to predict TS of rocks from their physical properties. CA is used to determine the optimal value of the SVR controlling the parameters. A dataset including 29 data points was used in this study, in which 20 data points (70%) were considered for constructing the model and the remaining ones (9 data points) were used to evaluate the degree of accuracy and robustness. The results obtained show that the SVR optimized by the CA model can be successfully used to predict TS.Fri, 30 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +0100Influence of modeling material on undercut slope failure mechanism
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A series of physical modeling tests were conducted by means of a beam type geotechnical centrifuge machine in order to investigate the drainage impact on the slope failure mechanism under centrifugal acceleration. Meanwhile, the phenomenon of stress redistribution in undercut slopes and the formation of arching effect were studied. For this purpose, a poorly graded sandy soil (Silica sand No. 6) as well as a relatively well-graded sandy soil (Edosaki sand) were used as the modeling materials. The humid modeling material was compacted on a low friction oblique rigid plate simulating the potential slippage plane. The process of undercutting was conducted, while the earth pressure redistribution inside the model was recorded by means of a miniature set of pressure cells. The results obtained showed completely different failure mechanisms for the two different modeling soils. By undercutting the slope, the earth pressure redistributed and the arch action was formed in a slope model made from a well-graded soil leading to a clear arch-shaped failure. However, in using the poorly graded soil, the water was drained out during centrifuge g-up, the modeling material properties changed, and an avalanche failure was observed. Therefore, in selecting a humid compacted soil as the centrifugal modeling material, a well-graded soil is recommended.Sun, 09 Jul 2017 19:30:00 +0100Optimal production strategy of bimetallic deposits under technical and economic uncertainties ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_934_111.html
In order to catch up with reality, all the macro-decisions related to long-term mining production planning must be made simultaneously and under uncertain conditions of determinant parameters. By taking advantage of the chance-constrained programming, this paper presents a stochastic model to create an optimal strategy for producing bimetallic deposit open-pit mines under certain and uncertain conditions. The uncertainties of grade, price per product, and capacities of the various stages in the process of production of the final product were considered. The results of solving the deterministic and stochastic models showed that the stochastic model had a greater compatibility and performance than the other ones.Fri, 30 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +0100Development of a site-specific regression model for assessment of road-header cutting ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_955_0.html
In underground excavation, where the road-headers are employed, a precise prediction of the road-header performance has a vital role in the economy of the project. In this paper, a new model is developed for prediction of the road-header performance using the non-linear multivariate regression analysis. This model is able to estimate the instantaneous cutting rate (ICR) of roadheader based on rock properties such as Brazilian tensile strength (BTS), rock mass cuttability index (RMCI), and alpha angle (α: is the angle between the tunnel axis and the planes of weakness). In order to construct and test the proposed model, a database including 62 cutting cases is used in the Tabas coal mine No. 1 in Iran. Various statistical performance indices were employed to evaluate the model efficiency. The results obtained indicate that the proposed non-linear regression model can be efficiently used to predict the road-header cutting performance. Furthermore, the prediction capacity of this model is better than the empirical models developed previously. Finally, it should be noted that the developed model is site-speciﬁc, and it can be used for preliminary estimation of ICR in future phases of Tabas coal mine No. 1. The outcome of this model can be helpful in adjustment of time-scheduling of the project.Thu, 22 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +0100Determination of a suitable extraction equipment in mechanized longwall mining in steeply ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_847_111.html
The longwall mining method is one of the most applied methods in extracting low-inclined to high-inclined coal seams. Selection of the most suitable extraction equipment is very important in the economical, safety, and productivity aspects of mining operations. There are a lot of parameters affecting the selection of an extraction equipment in mechanized longwall mining in steeply inclined coal seams. The important criteria involved are the geometric properties of coal seam (dip, thickness, and uniformity of coal seam), geological and hydraulic conditions (faults, fractures, joints, and underground water), and geomechanical properties of coal seam and surrounding rocks. Extraction of inclined coal seams with gradients greater than 40 degree is different from low-inclined seams, and requires a special equipment. Therefore, the influence of the above-mentioned parameters must be considered simultaneously in the selection of extraction equipment for steeply inclined seams. This paper presents an application of the Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) method in order to select a suitable extraction equipment in the Hamkar coal mine. In the proposed FAHP model, fifteen main criteria are considered, as follow: dip of coal seam, thickness of coal seam, seam uniformity, expansion of coal seam, faults, fractures and joints, underground waters, hangingwall strength, footwall strength, coal strength, in-situ stress, equipment salvage, dilution, system flexibility, and operational costs. Among the 6 considered longwall extraction equipment system alternatives, the findings show that the most suitable extraction equipment system is shearer on footwall and a support system using hydraulic props and the transport of coal with the force of gravity.Fri, 30 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +0100Application of continuous restricted Boltzmann machine to detect multivariate anomalies from ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_966_0.html
Anomaly separation using stream sediment geochemical data has an essential role in regional exploration. Many different techniques have been proposed to distinguish anomalous from study area. In this research, a continuous restricted Boltzmann machine (CRBM), which is a generative stochastic artificial neural network, was used to recognize the mineral potential area in Korit 1:100000 sheet, located 15 km south of Tabas, South Khorasan Province (East of Iran). For this purpose, 470 geochemical stream sediment samples were collected from the study area and analyzed for 36 elements. In order to achieve the goal, in the first step, the robust factor analysis on compositional data was applied to reduce the data dimension and to limit the multivariate analysis by selecting the main components of mineralization. In this procedure, the third factor (out of 6) consisting of Cu, Pb, Zn, Sn, and Sb, related to the metallogenic properties, was considered as the input set in CRBM. In continuation, the CRBM structure with the best efficiency after trying different parameters was stabilized. High-identified error values or anomalies were exteracted using two different thresholds (ASC and ASE) after training with the whole data and reconstructing it by CRBM. The anomalies were then mapped. These indicated the promissing areas. The field studies and existing mining indices confirmly demonestrated the results obtained by CRBM.Wed, 05 Jul 2017 19:30:00 +0100A new method for 3-D magnetic data inversion with physical bound
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_953_111.html
Inversion of magnetic data is an important step towards interpretation of the practical data. Smooth inversion is a common technique for the inversion of data. Physical bound constraint can improve the solution to the magnetic inverse problem. However, how to introduce the bound constraint into the inversion procedure is important. Imposing bound constraint makes the magnetic data inversion a non-linear inverse problem. In this work, a new algorithm is developed for the 3D inversion of magnetic data, which uses an efficient penalization function for imposing the bound constraint and Gauss Newton method to achieve the solution. An adaptive regularization method is used in order to choose the regularization parameter in this inversion approach. The inversion results of synthetic data show that the new method can produce models that adequately match the real location and shape of the synthetic bodies. The test carried out on the field data from Mt. Milligan copper-gold porphyry deposit shows that the new inversion approach can produce the magnetic susceptibility models consistent with the true structures.Fri, 30 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +0100Evolution of AG mill shell liner design at Gol-E-Gohar concentration plant
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_954_0.html
Liner design is becoming an increasingly more important tool for the AG/SAG mill performance optimization. The Gol-E-Gohar iron ore concentration plant uses three 9 m × 2.05 m autogenous mills (AG) in parallel in a dry operation. Due to large variations in feed characteristics and inadequate blending, the performance of AG mills has been lower than the target value. In order to increase the circuit throughput while maintaining the desired product size, based upon physical and numerical simulations, it was proposed to convert the AG mills to SAG mills. Simulation of the charge trajectory indicated that increasing the liner lifter face angle from 7 to 30° could provide an appropriate charge trajectory in the SAG mode. Installation of the new liners and conversion of AG mill No. 2 to SAG mill, by adding 5% (v/v) balls, resulted in an overall increase of 31% in throughput (from 419 to 548 t/h). Measurement of the wear profiles of shell liners indicated that the wear along the liner length was not uniform. In order to arrive at a uniform wear profile, a new liner design was proposed. Installing the second liner design in AG mill No. 1 and converting it to SAG mill increased the mill throughput by 18% (from 413 to 489 t/h), while the liner life showed a 7% increase. Measurement of the wear profiles of the second liner set indicate that the maximum wear occurs in the centre of the mill. A new liner design was then designed by increasing the width of the lifter top from 12.5 to 15 cm and increasing the lifter height from 16 to 26 cm to enhance the liner life.Wed, 14 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +0100Maintainability measure based on operating environment, a case study: Sungun copper mine
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_657_111.html
The life cycle cost of a system is influenced by its maintainability. Maintainability is a design parameter, whose operational conditions can affect it significantly. Hence, the effects of these operational conditions should be quantified early in the design phase. The proportional repair model (PRM), which is developed based on the proportional hazard model (PHM), can be used to analyze maintainability considering the effects of the operational conditions. In PRM, the effects of the operational conditions are considered to be time-independent. However, this assumption may not be valid for some cases. The aim of this paper is to present an approach for prediction of the maintainability performance of the mining facilities considering the time-dependent influencing factors. The stratified Cox regression method (SCRM) is used to determine maintainability in the presence of time-dependent covariates for fleet vehicles operating in Sungun Copper Mine, Iran.Fri, 30 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +0100Determination of constant coefficients of Bourgoyne and Young drilling rate model using a novel ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_842_0.html
Achieving minimum cost and time in reservoir drilling requires evaluating the effects of the drilling parameters on the penetration rate and constructing a drilling rate estimator model. Several drilling rate models have been presented using the drilling parameters. Among these, the Bourgoyne and Young (BY) model is widely utilized in order to estimate the penetration rate. This model relates several drilling parameters to the penetration rate. It possesses eight unknown constants. Bourgoyne and Young have suggested the multiple regression analysis method in order to define these constants. Using multiple regressions leads to physically meaningless and out of range constants. In this work, the Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm (COA) is utilized to determine the BY model coefficients. To achieve this goal, the corresponding data for two wells are collected from one of the oilfields located in SW of Iran. The BY model constants are determined individually for two formations in one of the wells. Then the determined constants are used to estimate the drilling rate of penetration in the other well having the same formations. To compare the results obtained for COA, first, the two mathematical methods including progressive stochastic and multiple regressions were implemented. Comparison between these methods indicated that COA yields more accurate and reliable results with respect to the others. In the following, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) as meta-heuristic algorithms were applied on the field data in order to determine BY model’s coefficients. Comparison between these methods showed that the COA has fast convergence rate and estimation error less than others.Mon, 02 Jan 2017 20:30:00 +0100Determination of scratching energy index for Cerchar abrasion test
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_984_0.html
Rock abrasivity is an essential factor for selecting cutting tools, estimating tool wear and life, and ultimately, matching various mechanized excavation systems with a given geologic condition. It also assists engineers to determine economic limits of different cutting tools and machines used in civil and mining projects. The Cerchar abrasion test is a simple and most widely used method for rock abrasivity assessments. However, it has some shortcomings to describe the steel-rock interaction during the cutting process. In this work, two new parameters are used to describe the pin-rock interaction in the Cerchar abrasion test and to evaluate the efficiency of the rock scratching process. A set of 41 different rock samples are tested by a newly developed testing device. The device provides a more precise control of the testing operational parameters, and measures the applied frictional force on the pin and its horizontal and vertical displacements on the sample surface. The results obtained are used to calculate the Modified Cerchar Abrasion Index (MCAI) and the Scratch Energy Index (SEi), as two newly developed parameters. The accuracy of the calculated parameters is discussed. Our investigations show that MCAI has closer correlations with rock mechanical parameters than CAI, and therefore, has a higher potential to estimate the rock cutting tool wear in tunneling applications. Also SEi shows sensible correlations with sample hardness and mechanical properties. The results obtained show that SEi can be used to compare the efficiency of various pin hardnesses to create scratches on various rock samples, and could be used as a determinative parameter in selecting the cutting tool hardness.Thu, 27 Jul 2017 19:30:00 +0100Interactional effects of bubble size, particle size, and collector dosage on bubble loading in ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_978_0.html
The success of flotation operation depends upon the thriving interactions of chemical and physical variables. In this work, the effects of particle size, bubble size, and collector dosage on the bubble loading in a continuous flotation column were investigated. In other words, this work was mainly concerned with the evaluation of the true flotation response to the changes in the operating variables in column flotation. Two bubble sizes of 0.8 and 1.8 mm, three size fractions of 63-106, 106-150, and 150-300 μm, and three different dosages of dodecylamine, as the collector, were tested. According to the results obtained, the particle size fraction of 106-150 μm had the maximum bubble loading for bubble diameter of 1.8 mm, while the particle size of 63-106 μm had the maximum bubble loading for bubble diameter of 0.8 mm. It was also shown that increasing the bubble diameter from 0.8 to 1.8 mm increased the bubble loading in all the particle size fractions and collector dosages. However, the mass loading of air bubbles was strongly related to the collector dosage (contact angle), especially for coarse particles. The amount of collector dosage had an upper limit due to the clustering event, which significantly affected the bubble loading. The clustering was found to be more important in the presence of small particles due to a higher number of particles attached to the bubble surface. It was shown that such interactions of variables of true flotation could reasonably be monitored by the bubble loading measurement.Sun, 16 Jul 2017 19:30:00 +0100Long-term stability analysis of goaf area in longwall mining using minimum potential energy theory
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_991_0.html
Estimation of the height of caved and fractured zones above a longwall panel along with the stability conditions of the goaf area are very crucial to determine the abutment stresses, ground subsidence, and face support as well as designing the surrounding gates and intervening pillars. In this work, the height of caving-fracturing zone above the mined panel is considered as the height of destressed zone (HDZ). The long-term estimation of this height plays a key role in the accurate determination of maximum ground surface subsidence and the amount of transferred loads towards the neighbouring solid sections. This paper presents a new stability analysis model of caved material system in the goaf area. For this aim, a theoretical energy-based model of HDZ determination in long-term condition is developed. Then the stability condition of the caved material system is investigated using the principle of minimum potential energy. On the basis of the actual data gathered from the literature, the unstable time period of the caved material system is also calculated. Moreover, the effects of time- and temperature-related parameters and constant coefficients as well as their inherent relations with HDZ are evaluated. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis shows that the two temperature-related constants material constant and time are the most effective variables in HDZ, and the slope of material hardening is the least effective one. The estimated HDZ and the stability time of the caved materials can be successfully applied to determine the induced stress and the maximum surface subsidence, respectively, due to longwall mining.Fri, 18 Aug 2017 19:30:00 +0100An insight into effect of surface functional groups on reactivity of Sphalerite (110) surface ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_992_0.html
The reactivity of the protonated and hydroxylated sphalerite (1 1 0) surface with xanthate was simulated using the density functional theory (DFT). The difference between the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the sphalerite surface and the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital of xanthate ( was used to compare the reaction capability of xanthate with fresh and functionalized surfaces. The Mulliken atomic charge analysis was used to provide an in-depth insight into the effects of –H+ and –OH- groups on the reactivity of Zn atoms at the sphalerite surface. The values for different systems showed that the protonated surfaces exposed a higher reactivity with xanthate than the fresh and hydroxylated surfaces. The results of the Mulliken atomic charge analysis demonstrated that after the formation of –H+ and –OH- contained groups on the sphalerite surface, the surface atoms found a new charge due to the reduction and oxidation mechanism. In addition, the results obtained revealed that the electrophilicity of Zn atoms after the ion adsorption could be considered as a key factor in the reactivity of the sphalerite surface with xanthate. The DFT-based calculations also showed that different alkyl groups of xanthate had no significant influence on the reactivity of their head groups. The findings of this research work provided insights into the reactions of the sphalerite surface with xanthate.Sat, 19 Aug 2017 19:30:00 +0100Prediction of ultimate strength of shale using artificial neural network
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1012_0.html
A rock failure criterion is very important for prediction of the ultimate strength in rock mechanics and geotechnics; it is determined for rock mechanics studies in mining, civil, and oil wellborn drilling operations. Also shales are among the most difficult to treat formations. Therefore, in this research work, using the artificial neural network (ANN), a model was built to predict the ultimate strength of shale, and comparison was made with support vector machine (SVM), multiple linear regression models, and the widely used conventional polyaxial failure criteria in the stability analysis of rock structures, Drucker-Prager, and Mogi-Coulomb. For building the model, the corresponding results of triaxial and polyaxial tests have been performed on shales by various researchers. They were collected from reliable published articles. The results obtained showed that a feed forward back propagation multi-layer perceptron (MLP) was used and trained using the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm, and the 2-4-1 architecture with root-mean-square-error (RMSE) of 24.41 exhibits a better performance in predicting the ultimate strength of shale in comparison with the investigated models. Also for further validation, triaxial tests were performed on the deep shale specimens. They were prepared from the Ramshire oilfield in SW Iran. The results obtained were compared with ANN, SVM, multiple linear regression models, and the conventional failure criterion prediction. They showed that the ANN model predicted ultimate strength with a minimum error and RMSE being equal to 43.81. Then the model was used for prediction of the threshold broken pressure shale layer in the Gachsaran oilfield in Iran. For this, a vertical and horizontal stress was calculated based on a depth of shale layer. The threshold broken pressure was calculated for the beginning and ending of a shale layer to be 154.21 and 167.98 Mpa, respectively.Wed, 13 Sep 2017 19:30:00 +0100Field study on Re and heavy metals phytoextraction and phytomining potential by native plant ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1016_0.html
In this paper, we aimed to focus on identifying and characterizing heavy metal tolerant plant species growing spontaneously at the tailing dam of Sarcheshmeh Copper mine, south of Iran. The aim of this research work was to find species that are potentially useful for phytoextraction purposes. The concentration of As, Cu, Mo, Ni, Zn and Re were analyzed in soil as well as in shoots and roots of plant species separately, by ICP–OES. The mean concentration of As, Cu, Mo, Ni, Zn and Re in soil were found 18.44±13.41, 1280±500.95, 25.06±13.33, 32.9±14.39, 251.82±95.82 and 1.7±0.78 mg kg-1, respectively. The translocation factor (TF) and the bioaccumulation factor (BCF) were defined and used to assess the amount of the elements accumulated in shoots and roots of each plant species and to evaluate their potential for phytoextraction purposes. Based on the obtained results and using the most common criteria, T. ramosissima, C. dactylon, A. leucoclada and Z. fabago could strongly tolerate and extremely accumulate multiple metal(loid)s. Also Salsola kali, C. dactylon, A. leucoclada and Z. fabago can be classified as hyperaccumulators for Re with TF and BCF greater than one and ten, respectively. The results of this study should be further developed in order to confirm the potential use of these species in phytoextraction programs.Sun, 17 Sep 2017 19:30:00 +0100A comparative study of the fractal models and U-statistic method to identify geochemical ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1017_0.html
The most significant aspect of a geochemical exploration program is to define and separate anomalous values from background. In the past decades, geochemical anomalies have been identified by means of various methods. Most conventional statistical methods aiming at defining geochemical concentration thresholds for separating anomalies from background have limited efficiency in areas with complex geological settings. In this study, three methods including Concentration-Area and Spectrum-Area fractal models, and U-statistic method are applied to identify geochemical anomalies in Avanj porphyry system due to a complex geological and tectonic setting. The results show that S-A and U-statistic methods present more acceptable outputs than C-A method. The C-A model acts well to identify geochemical anomalies within a region including a simple geochemical background, but the model has limitations within a region including a complex geological setting, where each subarea is characterized by different geochemical fields. U-statistic method by considering the location of sampling points, their spatial relation and radius of influence for each point in the estimation of anomaly location overcomes the limitations of C-A model. The S-A model is a powerful tool to decompose mixed geochemical patterns into a geochemical anomaly map and a varied geochemical background map. The output of this method shows the analysis of geochemical data in frequency domain which can provide new exploratory information that may not be revealed in the spatial domain. Eventually, it can be pointed that the accuracy of S-A fractal model for determining thresholds is higher than two other mentioned methods.Tue, 19 Sep 2017 19:30:00 +0100A new approach to assess the stability of rock slope considering the centroids of weak zones
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1023_0.html
Intersection lines between discontinuity surfaces and their intersection points on the visible surfaces of any engineering structure may be indicators of instability. This paper describes a new approach to modelling intersecting lines and points that would provide the first evaluation of any instabilities in an engineering structure characterized by failure modes. In this study, intersection lines were grouped according to their direction, either in the reverse or same direction as the dip of the slope. Furthermore, intersection lines were grouped according to various ranges of the interior friction angle, which can be selected by users in a computer application developed for this study. The orientation of the intersecting lines and the location of the exposed intersection points were defined and assigned as the scatter points. These exposed points were clustered to determine the centroid locations. K-means clustering was used in this step. Finally, all these analyses were integrated in a logical order, and the results obtained were used to assess the instabilities on the slope surface. Experiments were carried out on a rock cut along the Konya-Antalya (Turkey) highway, which is composed of limestone, to demonstrate the performance and results of the approach. The locations of possible failure zones in the critical range of the interior friction angle were defined both visually and numerically along the slope. Experiments showed that the proposed method is very useful and easy to implement and yields practical preliminary evaluation results pertaining to instabilities according to basic failure modes.Sat, 23 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +0100An innovative Application of (Ni X Zn X –X Fe2O4) Mineral Nanoparticles for Adsorption of ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1035_0.html
In this research Ni-Zn Ferrite Mineral nanoparticles (NZFMN), as a novel Nano adsorbent was used for removal of green malachite (GM) dye from Aqueous Solutions by in a batch and fixed bed column. Firstly, (NZFMN) adsorption properties were investigated. The study investigates the effect of process parameters such as contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH and GM dye initial concentration. Thence, GM dye was quantitatively evaluated by using the Freundlich, Langmuir isotherm and pseudo first and second order model. The adsorption data follow the adsorption equilibrium was described well by the Freundlich isotherm model. The results of AFM and SEM analysis show that particle size is less than 100 nm. Also the BET analysis shows that the surface areas for (NZFMN) is 120 respectively. The results show that adsorption capacities and removal percentage of GM dye on (NZFMN) from wastewaters is about 90 %. Consequently (NZFMN) is a superior adsorbent for wastewaters purification.Tue, 10 Oct 2017 20:30:00 +0100A Study on the effects of ion exchange resin structure and functional groups on Re(VII) ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1036_0.html
Effects of functional groups and structure of two different resins, weak base/macroporous and strong base/gel type, Purolite A170 and Dowex 21K respectively, on adsorption properties of Re (VII) ions were investigated experimentally and described by isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic modeling. In this regard, four widely used adsorption isotherm models, Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) were subjected to sorption data to describe involved reactions. Evaluating the correlation coefficients showed that the Freundlich and D-R isotherm models provide the best fit. The Langmuir isotherm capacities (qm) were indicated that the perrhenate ions (ReO4-) adsorption is higher for weak base/macroporous type resin rather than the other (166.67mg/g and 142.86mg/g respectively).Moreover, the results from EDX studies were in agreement with previous results. Furthermore, kinetics of adsorption demonstrated through fitting the data into different mechanisms, among which the pseudo-second order mechanism was found to be successful for both resins; however, in case of Dowex 21K, the rate of perrhenate ions uptake was more rapid than PuroliteA170. The evaluation of thermodynamic parameters also showed that the reaction mechanisms are different for each cases and the adsorption of rhenium on Dowex 21K becomes more feasible with increasing in temperature due to negative values of ΔH.Tue, 10 Oct 2017 20:30:00 +0100Hydrothermal Alterations Mapping using Quickbird and Landsat- 8 data, a case study from ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1038_0.html
This paper focuses on investigating Quickbird and Landsat- 8 data for mapping hydrothermal and gossans alterations in reconnaissance porphyry copper mineralization at the Babbiduyeh area. The area is situated at the Central Iranian Volcano- sedimentary Complex, where the large copper deposits like Sarcheshmeh as well as numerous occurrences of copper exist. The alteration zones were discriminated by implementation of band ratio and principal component analysis (PCA) on Quickbird and Landsat- 8 datasets. The results of image processing were evaluated by field surveys, X-ray diffraction (XRD), microscopic thin section and spectroscopy studies of field samples as well as Sarduiyeh 1:100000 and Babbiduyeh 1:5000 geological maps. In addition, spectral characterizations of samples were analyzed by visual inspection, PIMAView, SAMS and ViewSpecpro software programs. The combined spectroscopic measurements, XRD analysis, and petrographic studies revealed mineral assemblages typical of Phyllic, Phyllic- supergen, Propylitic, Argillic alterations, and gossan. The results which were obtained from image processing and analysis of field samples illustrated example of the effect of iron oxides and hydroxides on the surface of phyllic and argillic alterations. Hence it can be concluded that the areas discriminated in the Quickbird as gossans correspond to phyllic and argillic alterations areas.Mon, 16 Oct 2017 20:30:00 +0100UPL determination of multi-element deposits under grade uncertainty by a new BEV calculation ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1041_0.html
The block economic value (BEV) of a single-metal deposit is calculated based on the metal content and the related costs. The common methods for calculating the BEV are just based on profitable elements and the effect of undesirable elements on the BEV is not considered. However, in multi-element deposits, the effects of other elements existing in the blocks with the purpose of optimizing the blending should be considered on the BEV. These elements and blending method have a considerable effect on the quality of final product. In this paper, a new approach is introduced to determine the BEV in multi-element deposit with two types of profitable and penalty elements by considering the effect of blending in BEV. Consequently, the ultimate pit limits (UPLs) will be determined based on these conditions. The developed model is tested in Gol-e-Gohar No.2 iron-ore mine and the mine UPLs is determined. The result shows that the mineable reserve of the pit will increase 3% when the effects of both types of elements are considered. To investigate the effect of grade uncertainty on the BEV, twenty realizations of the ore block were generated using the sequential Gaussian simulation approach. The UPLs of all the realizations were determined using the developed BEV-calculation method and pit limits with the different probability of occurrence were determined. The total mineable reserve varied between 20,380 and 46,410 million tons. The ore exploitation should start with the smallest, (100% probability). The largest pit should be considered as a guide for surface-facility locating.Tue, 17 Oct 2017 20:30:00 +0100A quantitative model for evaluation and classification of blastings in open-pit mines
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_662_0.html
By evaluation of the blasting results, a proper blast pattern can be presented. It is, therefore, essential to employ a reliable method to evaluate blastings for the effective control and optimization of the main cycle operations. This paper aims to propose a criterion for evaluating the blasting results such as the fragmentation, muckpile condition, back-break, and fly rock, and to make a possible comparison between the blast parameters including the blasting pattern, explosives used, hole depths, and volume of the blasted rocks in the lead and zinc mine in Angouran (Iran). Using the global criterion, making the decision matrix dimensionless, and defining the appropriate conditions for the results obtained, a scalar value is devoted for the blasts, whose larger values denote a larger deviation from the proper blasting conditions and express undesirable blasts regarding the blasting results. By taking into consideration the mining operation conditions and weights of the results obtained, the influence of the results obtained on the mining operation index is also investigated using the genetic algorithm. Furthermore, by composing the weighted decision matrix, the blastings are evaluated and classified. Analyzing the results obtained for blastings in the Angouran mine reveals that the proposed method is an effective approach for evaluation of the blasting results and comparison of the blasts.Wed, 17 Aug 2016 19:30:00 +0100Application of harmony search algorithm to evaluate performance of diamond wire saw
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_723_0.html
Evaluation and prediction of performance of diamond wire saw is one of the most important factors involved in planning the dimension stone quarries. The wear rate of diamond wire saw can be investigated as a major criterion to evaluate its performance. The wear rate of diamond wire saw depends upon non-controlled parameters related to rock characteristics and controlled parameters related to characteristics of the cutting machine and operational parameters. Under the same working conditions, the wear rate of diamond wire saw is strongly affected by the rock properties. This is a key factor that required in evaluating the wear rate of diamond wire saw. In this work, the four major dimension stone properties uniaxial compressive strength, Schimazek F-abrasivity factor, Shore hardness, and Young's modulus were selected as the criteria to evaluate the wear rate of diamond wire saw using the harmony search algorithm (HSA). HSA was used to cluster the fifteen different andesite quarries located in Turkey. The studied dimension stones were classified into three classes. The results obtained show that the algorithm applied can be used to classify the performance of diamond wire saw according to its wear rate by only some famous physical and mechanical properties of dimension stone.Sat, 24 Sep 2016 20:30:00 +0100Evaluation of effective factors in window optimization of fry analysis to identify ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_909_0.html
The known ore deposits and mineralization trends are important key exploration criteria in mineral exploration within a specific region. Fry analysis has conventionally been considered as a suitable method to determine the mineralization trends related to linear structures. Based upon literature sources, to date, no investigation has been carried out that includes the Sensitivity Analysis of Feature's Number (SAFN), Sensitivity Analysis of Window Size (SAWS), and Sensitivity Analysis of Spatial Distribution (SASD) of Fry analysis related to mineral locations. In this work, SAFN, SAWS, and SASD are performed by moving several different sub-windows among the main window in order to identify the main trends of mineralization by Fry analysis in the Bavanat region of Iran, which is qualified by its regional and local faults pattern. Based upon our investigation, the effectiveness of the window size and the number of features on Fry analysis are 15-30%. The determined main trends of sub-windows increase, whereas its distribution function of Fry outputs is more similar to the distribution function of Fry outputs of the main window. Moreover, the directions of rose diagrams could be changed due to the edge effects of marginal features around the selected window. However, by selecting an appropriate window, this problem can be solved. Additionally, by an appropriate window selection, the most suitable regional situation is an area that contains the largest number of deposits with a similar metallogenetic origin. Based upon our investigation, the distribution function of the Fry outputs is the main factor that directly controls the identified mineralization pattern of the selected windows.Fri, 28 Apr 2017 19:30:00 +0100Application of concentration gradient coefficients in mining geochemistry: A comparison of ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_919_0.html
In this work, the concentration gradient (CG) analysis of local-scale exploration for Porphyry-Cu deposits is applied in two zones using the G(Vz) index (CG(Zn*Pb)/CG(Cu*Mo)). The first zone is covered by a 1:2000 map of the Sungun and Astamal areas in NW Iran and the second one in the Inza area in British Columbia, Canada. The rock samples are taken from Sungun and Astamal and the soil samples are taken from Inza. The Inza samples are analyzed for Cu, Pb, Zn, and Mo elements by the atomic absorption method, while the rock samples of Astamal and Sungun are analyzed for Cu, Pb, Zn, Mo, Ag, As, and Sb elements. The indices of gradient geochemical zonality (G(Vz)) of multi-elements around the mineral deposits and their spatial associations with particular geological, geochemical, and structural factors are the critical aspects that must be considered in mineral exploration. The values for the G(Vz) indices allow a distinction between the sub-ore and supra-ore anomalies, which are associated with Zone Dispersed Mineralization (ZDM) and Blind Mineralization (BM), respectively. For a comparative identification of BM and ZDM, a supra-ore (Pb*Zn) anomaly, a sub-ore (Cu*Mo) anomaly, and Vz maps are used in place of the mining geochemistry representing the supra-ore gradient anomaly, sub-ore gradient anomaly and G(Vz) map. The G(Vz) model outperforms the Vz model. The introduced technique allows for a computational distinction between the BM and ZDM ore mineralizations without exploration drilling. Prior to writing this paper, the blind porphyry-Cu mineralization was intersected at depth through borehole exploration in a highly prospective zone delineated by the G(Vz) model. The results obtained confirm the usefulness of the G(Vz) modeling for local-scale targeting of blind mineral deposits.Wed, 10 May 2017 19:30:00 +0100Structural analysis of impacting factors of sustainable development in underground coal mining ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_951_0.html
Mining can become more sustainable by developing and integrating economic, environmental, and social components. Among the mining industries, coal mining requires paying a serious attention to the aspects of sustainable development. Therefore, in this work, we investigate the impacting factors involved in the sustainable development of underground coal mining from the structural viewpoint. For this purpose, the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) technique, which is a graph-based method, is utilized. To do so, at first, twenty effective factors are determined for three components. Then the hierarchical structure and the systematic approach are used to determine the total exerted influence or total received influence of the components. The results obtained show that the environmental and social components are the most important, and the economic components are the least important among them.Mon, 12 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +0100Combining fuzzy RES with GA for predicting wear performance of circular diamond saw in hard ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_986_0.html
Predicting the wear performance of circular diamond saw in the process of sawing hard dimensional stone is an important step in reducing production costs in the stone sawing industry. In the present research work, the effective parameters on circular diamond saw wear are defined, and then the weight of each parameter is determined through adopting a fuzzy rock engineering system (Fuzzy RES) based on defining an accurate Gaussian pattern in fuzzy logic with analogous weighting. After this step, genetic algorithm (GA) is used to determine the levels of the four major variables and the amounts of the saw wear (output parameter) in the classification operation based on the fixed, dissimilar, and logarithmic spanning methods. Finally, a mathematical relationship is suggested for evaluation of the accuracy of the proposed models. The main contribution of our method is the novelty of combination of these methods in fuzzy RES. Before this work, all Fuzzy RESs only use simple membership functions and uniform spanning. Using GA for spanning and normal distribution as membership function based upon our latest work is the first work in fuzzy RES. To verify the selected proposed model, rock mechanics tests are conducted on nine hard stone samples, and the diamond saw wear is measured and compared with the proposed model. According to the results obtained, the proposed model exhibits acceptable capabilities in predicting the circular diamond saw wear.Mon, 31 Jul 2017 19:30:00 +0100