Journal of Mining and Environment
Journal of Mining and Environment
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/
Wed, 02 Dec 2020 12:01:57 +0100
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http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/
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Blast Design for Improved Productivity using a Modified Available Energy Method
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1778_195.html
In this work, a new drilling and blasting design methodology is introduced and applied at a case study mine to improve productivity. For the case study copper mine, a blast diameter of 203 mm is proposed to be used in the ore zone to meet the new required production rate of 90mtpa from 75mtpa. Currently, the Konya and Walter’s model is used to generate drilling and blasting design at a blasthole diameter of 172 mm. The new drilling and blast design approach is advantageous in the sense that it generates a lower specific drilling value and predicts an average fragment size compared with the current method being used. In this regard, a modified available energy blast design method that incorporates the blastability index of ore zone in the calculation of the input powder factor is introduced. The results of the blast design simulations at a 203 mm blasthole diameter shows that the modified available energy model generates a drilling and blasting design with a specific drilling value that is 15.3% less than that generated by the Ash’s and Konya and Walter’s models. Further, the modified available energy model generates a blast design with a predicted average fragment size that is 3.4% smaller than that generated by the Ash’s model, and 6.7% smaller than that generated by the Konya and Walter’s model.
Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100

Assessment of Terrain and Land Use/Land Cover Change of Mine Sites Using Geospatial Techniques ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1890_0.html
In this paper, we report a geospatial assessment of the selected mine sites in the Plateau State, Nigeria. The aim of this work is to determine the impact of mining on the terrain as well as the Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) of the host communities. The Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) is used for the terrain mapping. The derived impact of mining on LULC between 1975 and 2014 is determined by classifying the relevant Landsat imageries. The digital terrain map reveal that the mining activity is not wellcoordinated. Hence, the parts of the mine sites that are rich in the desired minerals are punctuated with low depth, while the other parts have high terrain as a result of the haphazard mining activity. The analysis of the LULC change show that the degraded land (DL), builtup area (BU), water bodies (WB), and exposed rock outcrop (RO) increase by 15.68%, 4.68%, 0.06%, and 14.5%, respectively, whereas the arable farmland (FL) and forest reserve (FR) decrease by 28.29% and 6.63%, respectively. Mining has adversely affected the natural ecology of the studied area. Therefore, the mine sites should be monitored, and their environmental damages should be predetermined and mitigated. There should be regular inspections to keep these activities under control. The existing laws and regulations to conserve the natural ecosystems of the host communities should be enforced to curtail the excesses of the operators of the mining industries. Restoration of the minefields to reduce the existing hazards prevent further environmental degradation, and facilitating the socioeconomic development of the area is also suggested.
Fri, 09 Oct 2020 20:30:00 +0100

A Preliminary Assessment of Rock Slope Stability in Tropical Climates: A Case Study at Lafarge ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1850_195.html
The stability analysis of rock slopes is a complex task for the geotechnical engineers due to the complex nature of the rock mass in a tropical climate that often has discontinuities in several forms, and consequently, in several types of slope failures. In this work, a rock mass classification scheme is followed in a tropical environment using the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) and Geological Strength Index (GSI) combined with the kinematic investigation using the Rocscience Software Dips 6.0. The Lafarge quarry is divided into ten windows. In the RMR system, the five parameters uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), rock quality designation (RQD), discontinuity spacing, discontinuity condition, and groundwater conditions are investigated. The RMR values range from 51 to 70 (fair to good rock mass), and the GSI values range from 62 to 65 (good to fair rock mass). There is a good and positive correlation between RMR and GSI. The kinematic analysis reveals that window A is prone to critical toppling, window H to critical wedgeplanar failure, and window G to critical wedge failure. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the kinematic analysis combined with the rock mass classification system provides a better understanding to analyze the rock slope stability in a tropical climate compared with considering the rock mass classification system individually.
Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100

Optimal Earthmoving Fleet Size for Minimising Emissions and Cost
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1884_0.html
Traditionally, the earthmoving operations have been developed based on the minimum cost per production criterion. Nowadays, due to the negative impacts of the emissions on the environment, there is an increasing public awareness to reduce the emissions from the earthmoving operations. Different management strategies can be employed to reduce emissions, amongst other things, which can also result in a reduction in the operational costs. This paper aims to examine the cost and emissions related to the earthmoving equipment from an operational standpoint. The queue theory is used in order to demonstrate that the optimum cost per production fleet size and the optimum emissions per production coincide. The linear and nonlinear server utilization functions are employed to present a general optimization proof independent from any specific case study. The findings of this research work provide a better understanding of the relationship between the emissions and cost and how the undertrucking and overtrucking conditions affect the productivity and environmental affairs in the earthmoving operations.
Fri, 02 Oct 2020 20:30:00 +0100

Investigation of Effect of Number of Lifters on Performance of PilotScale SAG Mills Using ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1688_195.html
The number of lifters of mill shell liners, mill rotation speed, and filling percentage of grinding media are three of the most important parameters influencing the charge behavior and the trajectory of ball motion inside the SAG mills, and consequently, their performance. In this paper, the milling operation of pilotscale SAG mills using the discrete element method (DEM) is investigated. First, a pilotscale SAG mill with dimensions of 3.0 m × 1.5 m with no lifter is simulated. Then by adding, respectively, one, two, four, eight, sixteen, and thirtytwo rectangle lifter(s), six other independent simulations are performed. The effects of the number of lifters on the two new parameters introduced by the authors, i.e. ‘head height’ and ‘impact zone length’ as well as on creation of cascading, cataracting, and centrifuging motions for balls at two different mill speeds, i.e. 70% and 80% of its critical speed (NC), are evaluated. Also in order to validate the simulation results, a laboratoryscale SAG mill is simulated. The results obtained indicate that the optimum number of lifters for pilotscale SAG mills is between 16 and 32 lifters with medium thickness. Liners with the number of lifters in this range require less mill speed to create cataract motions. However, liners with the number of lifters less than this range require a higher mill speed. Also liners with the number of lifters beyond this range require less mill speed, and can cause centrifugal motions in the balls. Comparison of the simulations related to the laboratoryscale SAG mill with experimental results demonstrates a good agreement, which validates the DEM simulations and the software used.
Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100

Analysis and Forecast of Mining Accidents in Pakistan
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1896_0.html
In the mining sector, the barrier to obtain an efficient safety management system is the unavailability of future information regarding the accidents. This paper aims to use the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, for the first time, to evaluate the underlying causes that affect the safety management system corresponding to the number of accidents and fatalities in the surface and underground mining in Pakistan. The original application of the ARIMA model provides that how the number of accidents and fatalities is influenced by the implementation of various approaches to promote an effective safety management system. The ARIMA model requires the data series of the predicted elements with a random pattern over time and produce an equation. After the model identification, it may forecast the future pattern of the events based on its existing and future values. In this research work, the accident data for the period of 20062019is collected from Inspectorate of Mines and Minerals (Pakistan), Mine Workers Federation, and newspapers in order to evaluate the longterm forecast. The results obtained reveal that ARIMA (2, 1, 0) is a suitable model for both the mining accidents and the workers’ fatalities. The number of accidents and fatalities are forecasted from 2020 to 2025. The results obtained suggest that the policymakers should take a systematic consideration by evaluating the possible risks associated with an increased number of accidents and fatalities, and develop a safe and effective working platform.
Tue, 03 Nov 2020 20:30:00 +0100

Application of Sequential Gaussian Conditional Simulation to Underground Mine Design Under ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1540_195.html
In mining projects, all uncertainties associated with a project must be considered to determine the feasibility study. Grade uncertainty is one of the major components of technical uncertainty that affects the variability of the project. Geostatistical simulation, as a reliable approach, is the most widely used method to quantify risk analysis to overcome the drawbacks of the estimation methods used for an entire ore body. In this work, all the algorithms developed by numerous researchers for optimization of the underground stope layout are reviewed. After that, a computer program called stope layout optimizer 3D is developed based on a previously proposed heuristic algorithm in order to incorporate the influence of grade variability in the final stope layout. Utilizing the sequential gaussian conditional simulation, 50 simulations and a kriging model are constructed for an underground copper vein deposit situated in the southwest of Iran, and the final stope layout is carried out separately. It can be observed that geostatistical simulation can effectively cope with the weakness of the kriging model. The final results obtained show that the frequency of economic value for all realizations varies between 6.7 M$ and 30.7 M$. This range of variation helps designers to make a better and lower risk decision under different conditions.
Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100

Dilution risk ranking in underground metal mines using MultiAttributive Approximation area ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1650_0.html
The contamination of ores with wastes or materials of lower than the cutoff grade is referred to as dilution. Dilution is an undesirable phenomenon that, on one hand, reduces the product grade and, consequently, reduces the sales prices and, on the other hand, adds an extra cost to waste production. Therefore, studying and evaluating the dilution risk is important in mining, and especially in underground mining. In this work, using a powerful decisionmaking method, i.e. MultiAttributive Approximation Area Comparison (MABAC), the dilution risk and ranking it in underground mines are assessed. For this purpose, the most important parameters affecting the dilution in 10 mines of the Venarch manganese mines are first identified and then weighed using the Fuzzy Delphi Analytical Hierarchy Analysis (FDAHP) method. Then using the MABAC method, the dilution risk score for each mine is estimated, and subsequently, various mines are ranked as the dilution risk. Then with the implementation of the Cavity Monitoring System (CMS) and measurement of the actual dilution values, the mines are ranked in dilution. The correct matching of the results of these two rankings indicates that the MABAC method is highly effective in the ranking of the risk. At the end, the risk ranking of the mines is done using the TOPSIS method, and the lack of full compliance with the results of this method with the actual values indicates that the MABAC method is preferable to the TOPSIS method.
Tue, 24 Dec 2019 20:30:00 +0100

On Applicability of Some Indirect Tests for Estimation of Tensile Strength of Anisotropic Rocks
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1696_195.html
The tensile strength of rocks plays a noteworthy role in their failure mechanism, and its determination can be beneficial in optimizing the design of the rock structures. Schistose rocks due to their inherent anisotropy in different foliation directions show a diverse strength at each direction. The purpose of this work was to compare and assess the tensile strength of phyllite, which was obtained in direct and indirect tensile tests in different foliation directions. To this end, several phyllite specimens with different foliation angles (0º, 30º, 45º, 60º, and 90º) related to the loading axis (β) were prepared. Finally, the direct tensile test, diametrical and axial point load tests, Brazilian test, and Schmidt hammer test were conducted on 188 samples. The results of the experimental tests revealed that the maximum and minimum tensile strengths in direct tensile testing tension were directly related to the angles of 0º and 90º. Also it was observed that the Brazilian tensile strength overestimated the tensile strength. Furthermore, an exponential correlation was introduced between the direct tensile strength and the Brazilian tensile strength.
Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100

A new technical and economic model to calculate specific charge and specific drilling using ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1831_0.html
Calculation of the specific charge and specific drilling before a blasting operation plays a significant role in the design of a blasting pattern and the reduction of the final extraction cost of minerals. In this work, the information from the Sungun, Miduk and ChahFirouzeh copper mines in Iran was assessed, and it was found that there was a significant relationship between the specific charge and specific drilling and the hole diameter, bench height, uniaxial compressive strength and joint set orientation. After finding a technical and economic model to calculate the specific charge and specific drilling, this model was tested on the Sungun copper mine. Due to the insufficient consideration during the design of a blast pattern and because of the high hardness of the rocks in some parts of the mine, lots of destructive events such as boulders, back break, bench toe, high specific charge and high specific drilling, fly rock, and ground vibration in the blast operations were observed. The specific charge and specific drilling were found to be the most important technical and economic parameters involved in designing a blasting pattern, and they were found to play an important role in reducing the blasting cost. The blasting cost could be largely controlled by the accurate examination and computation of these parameters. An increase in the rock strength and the angle between the bench face and the main joint set would increase the specific charge and specific drilling. On the other hand, a specific charge and a specific drilling would decrease when the hole diameter increased in every range of the uniaxial compressive strength.
Mon, 29 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100

A Comprehensive Study of Several MetaHeuristic Algorithms for OpenPit Mine Production ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1718_195.html
It is significant to discover a global optimization in the problems dealing with large dimensional scales to increase the quality of decisionmaking in the mining operation. It has been broadly confirmed that the longterm production scheduling (LTPS) problem performs a main role in mining projects to develop the performance regarding the obtainability of constraints, while maximizing the whole profits of the project in a specific period. There is a requirement for improving the scheduling methodologies to get a good solution since the production scheduling problems are nondeterministic polynomialtime hard. The current paper introduces the hybrid models so as to solve the LTPS problem under the condition of grade uncertainty with the contribution of Lagrangian relaxation (LR), particle swarm optimization (PSO), firefly algorithm (FA), and bat algorithm (BA). In fact, the LTPS problem is solved under the condition of grade uncertainty. It is proposed to use the LR technique on the LTPS problem and develop its performance, speeding up the convergence. Furthermore, PSO, FA, and BA are projected to bring uptodate the Lagrangian multipliers. The consequences of the case study specifies that the LR method is more influential than the traditional linearization method to clarify the largescale problem and make an acceptable solution. The results obtained point out that a better presentation is gained by LR–FA in comparison with LRPSO, LRBA, LRGenetic Algorithm (GA), and traditional methods in terms of the summation net present value. Moreover, the CPU time by the LRFA method is approximately 16.2% upper than the other methods.
Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100

Numerical investigation of the effect of rock bolt angle on the shear behavior of rock bridge
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1886_0.html
In this work, the effect of rock bolt angle on the shear behavior of Rock Bridges is investigated using the particle flow code in two dimensions (PFC2D) for three different Rock Bridge lengths. Firstly, the calibration of PF2D is performed to reproduce the gypsum sample. Then the numerical models with the dimensions of 100 mm * 100 mm are prepared. The Rock Bridge is created in the middle of the model by removal of the narrow bands of discs from it. The uniaxial compressive strength of the Rock Bridge is 7.4 MPa. The Rock Bridge lengths are 30 mm, 50 mm, and 70 mm. The rock bolt is calibrated by a parallel bond. The tensile strength of the simulated rock bolt is 360 MPa.One rock bolt is implemented in the Rock Bridge. The rock bolt angles related to the horizontal axis are the changes from 0 to 75 degrees. Totally, 18 models are prepared. The shear test condition is added to the models. The normal stress is fixed at 2 MPa, and the shear load is added to the model till failure occurs. The results obtained show that in a fixed rock bolt angle, the tensile crack initiates from the joint tip and propagates parallel to the shear loading axis till coalescence to rock bolt. In a constant Rock Bridge length, the shear strength decreases with increase in the rock bolt angle. The highest shear strength occurs when the rock bolt angle is 0°.
Sun, 04 Oct 2020 20:30:00 +0100

Effect of Segmental Joint on Internal Forces in Tunnel Lining under Seismic Loading by ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1751_195.html
Although segmental tunnel linings are often used for seismic areas, the influence of segment joints on the segmental lining behavior under seismic loading has not been thoroughly considered in the literature. This paper presents the results of a numerical study investigating the effects of the rotational, axial, and radial joint stiffness of the longitudinal joints on the structural forces in segmental tunnel lining under seismic loading. A 3D finite element method is adapted to establish elaborate numerical models of the segments. The validity of the numerical model was tested by comparing the results obtained with the wellknown analytical methods presented by Wang and Penzien. The results demonstrate that by increasing the rotational stiffness of the segmental joint, the bending moment increases. When the rotational stiffness ratio is less than 0.5, the positive and negative bending moment variations are more. The numerical modeling results show the variations in the bending moment and the difference between the positive and negative bending moment values increased by increasing the acceleration of seismic loading. Moreover, it is significant for the values. By increasing the rotational stiffness ratio of the segmental joint, the axial force ratio decreases. By increasing the axial and shear stiffness ratio of segmental joint, the variations in the bending moment and axial force in segmental lining is not significant and is ignorable in designing segmental lining.
Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100

Robust Principal Component Analysis and Fractal Methods to delineate mineralizationrelated ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1901_0.html
The Dehaj area, located in the southern part of the UrumiehDokhtar magmatic belt, is a wellendowed terrain hosting a number of worldclass porphyry copper deposits. These deposits are all hosted in an acidic to intermediate volcanoplutonic sequence greatly affected by various types of the hydrothermal alterations, whether argillic, phyllic or propylitic. Although there are a handful of hithertodiscovered porphyry copper deposits in the area, the geological setting of the area suggests the possibility of finding further deposits. The recognition and delineation of the hydrothermal alterations can pave the way for the discovery of further potential zones that possibly host the porphyry copper deposits. The current work proposes a hybrid methodology applied to the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery by combining the application of dimension reduction and fractal techniques to delineate the hydrothermallyaltered zones In order to reduce the dimensionality of multiband ASTER data, Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) was employed to elicit the traces of hydrothermallyrelated mineral assemblages including illite, sericite, quartz, kaolinite, epidote, and chlorite. Highlighting the existence of the aforementioned minerals, the extracted components require interpretation, i.e. a boundary is required to constraint the hydrothermally affected zones from the rest of the geological units. In order to tackle such a challenge, the authors introduce the concept of valuepixel fractal technique for the extracted principal components. The PredictionArea (PA) plot is used for the validation, which shows that the identified alterations correlate with the mineralization. The results obtained are verified by a geological survey, where a number of samples are collected from the delineated zones. The samples are analyzed by the XRD techniques, finding that this work is successful in classifying the hydrothermallyaltered zones.
Sun, 15 Nov 2020 20:30:00 +0100

Comparison of Copper Dissolution in Chalcopyrite Concentrate Bioleaching with Acidianus ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1756_195.html
Although bioleaching of chalcopyrite by thermophilic microorganisms enhances the rate of copper recovery, a high temperature accelerates iron precipitation as jarosite, which can bring many operational problems in the industrial processes. In this research work, the bioleaching of chalcopyrite concentrate by the thermophilic Acidianus brierleyi was studied, and the microbial growth, copper dissolution, iron oxidation, and jarosite precipitation were monitored in different initial pH (pHi) values. Bacterial growth was greatly affected by pHi. While the bacterial growth was delayed for 11 days with a pHi value of 0.8, this delay was reduced to nearly one day for a pHi value of 1.2. Two stages of copper recovery were observed during all the tests. A high pHi value caused a fast bacterial growth in the first stage and severe jarosite precipitation in the later days causing a sharp decline in the bacterial population and copper leaching rate. The copper recoveries after 11 days were 25%, 78%, 84%, 70%, 56%, and 39% for the pHi values of 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.3, 1.5, and 1.7, respectively. Sulfur and jarosite were the main residues of the bioleaching tests. It was revealed that the drastic effect of jarosite precipitation on the microbial growth and copper recovery was mainly caused by the ferric iron depletion from solution rather than passivation of the chalcopyrite surface. A slow precipitation of crystalline jarosite did not cause a passive chalcopyrite surface. The mechanisms of chalcopyrite bioleaching were discussed.
Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100

First Find of Satin Spar Gemstone in Iran, Folded Zagros Zone, Fars Region
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1908_0.html
The gypsum mineralization occurred in the form of Satin Spar and Selenite in the south and southwest of the Fars province in the folded Zagros zone. In this region, Satin Spar mineralization has been formed as stratiform between the red marl and siltstone units of Late Miocene–Pliocene in Agha Jari, Bakhtiari, and the Gachsaran formations. The reserves of Satin Spar in this area are at least 200,000 tons. Satin Spar due to its chatoyancy, has been able to distinguish itself from gypsum. This beautiful light phenomenon (chatoyancy) results from the regular and parallel arrangement of the Satin Spar fibers. The mineral was first identified by its physical properties, and then by the Xray diffraction analysis. They were also examined by scanning electron microscopy for its structure and also the structure of fiber crystals and their optical properties. In order to examine the polishing condition of Satin Spar, several samples of this gemstone were also selected for fantasy and Cabochon cut. For the first time in Iran, the exploration of Satin Spar gemstone in the Fars region can be a model for its discovery in the other evaporative formations in the country.
Mon, 30 Nov 2020 20:30:00 +0100

A New Mathematical Model for Production Scheduling in Sublevel Caving Mining Method
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1773_195.html
Production scheduling in underground mines is still a manual process, and achieving a truly optimal result through manual scheduling is impossible due to the complexity of the scheduling problems. Among the underground mining methods, sublevel caving is a common mining method with a high production rate for hard rock mining. There are limited studies about longterm production scheduling in the sublevel caving method. In this work, for sublevel caving production scheduling optimization, a new mathematical model with the objective of net present value (NPV) maximization is developed. The general technical and operational constraints of the sublevel caving method such as opening and developments, production capacity, sublevel mining geometry, and ore access are considered in this model. Prior to the application of the scheduling model, the block model is processed to remove the unnecessary blocks. For this purpose, the floating stope algorithm is applied in order to determine the ultimate mine boundary and reduce the number of blocks that consequently reduces the running time of the model. The model is applied to a bauxite mine block model and the maximum NPV is determined, and then the mine development network is designed based on the optimal schedule.
Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100

Physical modelling of caving propagation process and damage profile ahead of the caveback
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1885_0.html
The cavability assessment of rock mass cavability and indicating the damage profile ahead of a caveback is of great importance in the evaluation of a caving mine operation, which can influence all aspects of the mine operation. Due to the lack of access to the caved zones, our current knowledge about the damage profile in caved zones is very limited. Among the different approaches available, physical modelling can provide a useful tool for assessment of the cave propagation and understanding the caveback mechanism. Despite the general belief of the continuous damage profile ahead of a cave, the recent studies have shown a different mechanism of banding fracture. In order to investigate the caving mechanism ahead of a cave, a base friction apparatus is designed in this work. The base friction powder is used as the modelling material for physical testing, where its strength properties is significantly dependent on its unit weight. The effects of the material’s unit weight and the undercutting process on the cavability and caveback height are studied. The experimental results undertaken in this research work clearly confirm the banding fracture mechanism in the caved zone, rather than continuous yielding. The effect of the undercutting sequence on the caveback height is investigated through three different scenarios of symmetric undercutting with a gradual increase in span, symmetric undercutting with a sudden increase in span, and asymmetric undercutting. The results obtained show that the ground deformation is significantly dependent on the undercutting sequence, where choosing a greater undercutting span results in a faster cave propagation and smaller accessible undercut spans.
Sun, 04 Oct 2020 20:30:00 +0100

Dissolution of Nickel and Cobalt from IronRich Laterite Ores Using Different Organic Acids
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1777_195.html
Due to the decreasing production of nickel and cobalt from sulfide sources, the Ni and Co extraction from the oxide ores (laterites) have become more prevalent. In this research work, the effects of calcination prior to leaching, acid concentration, percent solid, pH, and stirring speed on the nickel and cobalt recoveries from an ironrich laterite ore sample were investigated using different organic acids. Then the response surface methodology was implemented in order to optimize the various parameters. By the design of experiments, the compound optimal concentrations of the three different organic acids (gluconic acid: lactic acid: citric acid with a ratio of 1:2:3) were 3.18 M, and S/L = 0.1, pH = 0.5, and the stirring speed = 386 rpm. With the aid of kinetic studies, a temperature of 75 °C, and a test time of 120 minutes, the highest nickel and cobalt recoveries were 25.5% and 37.6%, respectively. In the optimal conditions, the contribution of the percent solids to the nickel recovery was the most and negative, after which the contribution of pH was negative, and finally, the acid concentration had a positive effect. In the optimal conditions, the acid concentration, pH, and solid content were, respectively, important in the cobalt recovery. The SEM results showed that the surface of feed and residue particles in the optimal conditions was not significantly different, and the laboratory data was fitted to a shrinking core model. The results obtained indicated that the reaction rate was controlled by the diffusion reaction at the particle surface, and the activation energies of 11.09 kJ/mol for nickel and 28.04 kJ/mol for cobalt were consistent with this conclusion
Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100

Application of probabilistic clustering algorithms to determine mineralization area in ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1894_0.html
In this work, we aim to identify the mineralization areas for the next exploration phases. Thus, the probabilistic clustering algorithms due to the use of appropriate measures, the possibility of working with datasets with missing values, and the lack of trapping in local optimal are used to determine the multielement geochemical anomalies. Four probabilistic clustering algorithms, namely PHC, PCMC, PEMC, PDBSCAN, and 4138 stream sediment samplings, are used to divide the samples into the three clusters of background, possible anomaly, and probable anomaly populations. In order to determine these anomalies, ten and eight metal elements are selected as the chalcophile and siderophile elements, respectively. The results obtained show the areas of approximately 500 and 5,000 km2 as the areas of the probable and possible anomalies, respectively. The composite geochemical anomalies of the chalcophile and siderophile elements are mostly dominant in the metamorphicacidicintermediate rock units and the alkalinemetamorphicintermediate rock units of the studied area, respectively. Besides, the obtained anomalies of the four clustering algorithms also cover about 65% of the mineralized areas, all mines, and almost 60% of the alteration areas. The validity criterion of the clustering methods show more than 70% validity for the obtained anomalies. The results obtained indicate that the probabilistic clustering algorithms can be an appropriate statistical tool in the regionalscale geochemical explorations.
Tue, 03 Nov 2020 20:30:00 +0100

A Correlation for Estimating LCPC Abrasivity Coefficient using Rock Properties
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1782_195.html
Rock abrasivity, as one of the most important parameters affecting the rock drillability, significantly influences the drilling rate in mines. Therefore, rock abrasivity should be carefully evaluated prior to selecting and employing drilling machines. Since the tests for a rock abrasivity assessment require sophisticated laboratory equipment, empirical models can be used to predict rock abrasivity. Several indices based on five known methods have been introduced for assessing rock abrasivity including rock abrasivity index (RAI), Cerchar abrasivity index (CAI), Schimazek’s abrasivity factor (Fabrasivity), bit wear index (BWI), and LCPC abrasivity coefficient (LAC). In this work, 12 rock types with different origins were investigated using the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), Brazilian test for tensile strength, and longitudinal wave velocity and LCPC tests, and microscopic observations were made to obtain a correlation for estimating the LCPC abrasivity coefficient by conducting the conventional rock mechanics tests. Using the equivalent quartz content, velocity of longitudinal waves, and rock brittleness index, a linear correlation was obtained with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 93.3% using SPSS in order to estimate LAC.
Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100

Experimental Studies, Response Surface Methodology and Molecular Modeling for Optimization and ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1887_0.html
In this work, three types of natural clays including kaolinite, montmorillonite, and illite with different molecular structures, as adsorbents, are selected for the removal of methylene blue dye, and their performance is investigated. Also the optimization and the analysis of the dye adsorption mechanism are performed using the response surface methodology, molecular modeling, and experimental studies. The response surface optimization results demonstrate that the parameters affecting on the dye adsorption process are somewhat similar in all the three types of clays, and any difference in the impacts of the different parameters involved depends on the different structures of these three types of clays. The results of the experimental studies show that all the three clays follow the Temkin isotherm, and the comparison of the clay adsorption capacity is illite (3.28) > kaolinite (4.15) > montmorillonite (4.5) L/g. On the other hand, the results obtained from the laboratory studies and the response surface optimization were obtained using molecular modeling with the Gaussian and ChemOffice softwares. The results of these achievements confirm that the number of acceptor hydrogen bonds around the clays influence the adsorption capacity of methylene blue. Based on the results obtained, most adsorption capacities of clays are related to illite > kaolinite > montmorillonite that have 24, 18, and 16 acceptor hydrogens, respectively. The assessment of the adsorption mechanism process by the different methods confirms the dominance of the physical adsorption process and a minor effect of the chemical adsorption.
Sun, 04 Oct 2020 20:30:00 +0100

A 3D FiniteDifference Analysis of Interaction between a NewlyDriven Large Tunnel with Twin ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1783_195.html
Evaluation of the interaction between a new and the existing underground structures is one of the important problems in urban tunneling. In this work, using FLAC3D, four numerical models of single and twintube tunnels in urban areas are developed, where the horizontal distance between the single and twintube tunnels are varied. The aim is to analyze the effects of the horizontal distances, considering various criteria such as the deformation of linings, the forces and moments exerted on the twintube tunnels and their safety factors, the subsidence that occur on the surface and the nearby buildings, the stability of the singletube tunnel, and the stability of the pillar lying between the single and twintube tunnels. Considering the abovementioned criteria, the results obtained indicate that the interaction between the single and twintube tunnels is virtually negligible in the distance more than three times the singletube tunnel diameter. Also the stability of the pillar lying between the tunnels makes the distance to be chosen at least 1.5 times the singletube tunnel diameter.
Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100

A Numerical Investigation for TBM Disc Cutter Life Prediction in Hard Rocks
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1881_0.html
There is a direct relationship between the efficiency of mechanized excavation in hard rocks and that of disc cutters. Disc cutter wear is an important effective factor involved in the functionality of tunnel boring machines. Replacement of disc cutters is a timeconsuming and costly activity that can significantly reduce the TBM utilization and advance rate, and has a major effect on the total time and cost of the tunneling projects. When these machines bore through hard rocks, the cutter wear considerably affects the excavation process. To evaluate the performance of the cutters, first, it is essential to figure out how they operate the rock cutting mechanism; secondly, it is important to identify the key factors that cause the wear. In this work, we attempt to introduce a comprehensive numerical method for estimation of disc cutter wear. The field data including the actual cutter wear more than 1000 pieces and the geological parameters along the KaniSib transmission tunnel in the northwest of Iran are compiled in a special database that is subjected to a statistical analysis in order to reveal the genuine wear rule. The results obtained from the numerical method indicate that with an increase in the wear of disk cutter up to 25 mm, the applied normal and rolling forces can be multiplied by 2.9 and 2.7, respectively, and by passing the critical wear, the disk cutters lose their optimal performance. This method also shows that confining pressure will increase the wear of the disc cutter. By the proposed formulation, the cutter consumption rate can be predicted with a high accuracy.
Mon, 28 Sep 2020 20:30:00 +0100

Copper Price Prediction using Wave Count with Contribution of Elliott Waves
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1786_195.html
Within the last few decades, copper has been identified as one of the most applicable metals by many researchers. These researchers have also been enthusiastic to predict the price of this valuable metal. These days, the available technical analysis methods have been highly applied in the financial markets. Moreover, the researchers have used these methods to predict the suitable price trends. In the present work, some technical analysis tools including the Fibonacci series, Elliott waves, and Ichimuko clouds were practiced to scrutinize the price changes and predict the copper price. All copper prices from 2008 to 2016 were considered. Regarding the fractal property of these methods, the relations among prices were obtained within an eightyear time sequence. Since 2016, the copper price has been gradually deviated from its previous trend. Using the wave count and Elliott waves has specified that the wave number 1 and wave number 2 have been completed. Now, the time has come to develop the wave number 3. According to the relations introduced by the Elliott waves and the clouds made by Ichimiku, it was determined that the copper price would be almost $16000 per ton in 2022.
Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100

Designing an Intelligent Model of Strategic Planning in Mining Holdings Case Study: ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1903_0.html
Business logic is one of the most important logics based on the decision matrix. However, using this logic alone and environmental uncertainty leads to problems such as low accuracy and integrity in strategic planning. In this work, we use an intelligent model based on the neuralfuzzy approach aiming at a desired decisionmaking and reducing the uncertainty in the strategic planning in mineral holdings. Here, the strategies are presented based on three logics, namely business, added value, and capital market. After extracting the primary indices, the final indices of the three logics are selected by consulting with the mineral holding experts. Modelling of the indices is accomplished by the Matlab software, and the model computation is done by the root mean square error for the test data and train data. The case study (Shahabsang holding) findings show that by a combination of these three logics, the proposed strategies include more integration and accuracy, which lead to a lower uncertainty and more speed in the strategy formulation. Also the test result indicates the validity of all the extracted strategies.
Sat, 21 Nov 2020 20:30:00 +0100

Mechanical Properties of Low Plasticity Clay Soil Stabilized with Iron Ore Mine Tailing and ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1790_195.html
Due to economical and environmental issues, utilization of mineral wastes, e.g. iron ore mine tailing (IOMT), as road materials can be recommended as a sustainable alternative. In the present study, mechanical properties, as well as resistance to freezing and thawing cycles (FT) of low plasticity clay soil stabilized with different percentages of Portland cement (0, 6, 9, 12 and 15%) and different IOMT content (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%) has been investigated. To this end, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), initial elastic modulus (E0), and indirect tensile strength (ITS) at different curing times of 7, 14, 18, and 56 days for different admixtures was determined to select optimum mix design for stabilization of clayey subgrade soil. This study shows that by increasing the percentage of cement, strength parameters such as UCS, E0, and ITS increases while increasing IOMT does not show a specific trend to increase strength parameters. Evaluation of strength parameters at different curing time showed that in shortterm curing times (7 and 14 days), iron ore mine tailing has a positive effect on the strength parameters, while in longterm curing times (28 and 56 days), iron ore mine tailing has a negative effect on the strength parameters. In total, it was found that 12% of the Portland cement and 10 to 40% of the IOMT passes the UCS and FT criteria for stabilization of low plasticity clay soils, while clay soil (without IOMT) requires at least 15% of Portland cement for stabilization.
Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100

Predicting acid mine drainage generation resulted from copper tailing particles by using gene ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1892_0.html
This work presents a quantitative predicting likely acid mine drainage (AMD) generation process throughout tailing particles resulting from the Sarcheshmeh copper mine in the south of Iran. Indeed, four predictive relationships for the remaining pyrite fraction, remaining chalcopyrite fraction, sulfate concentration, and pH have been suggested by applying the gene expression programming (GEP) algorithms. For this, after gathering an appropriate database, some of the most significant parameters such as the tailing particle depths, initial remaining pyrite and chalcopyrite fractions, and concentrations of bicarbonate, nitrite, nitrate, and chloride are considered as the input data. Then 30% of the data is chosen as the training data randomly, while the validation data is included in 70% of the dataset. Subsequently, the relationships are proposed using GEP. The high values of correlation coefficients (0.92, 0.91, 0.86, and 0.89) as well as the low values of RMS errors (0.140, 0.014, 150.301, and 0.543) for the remaining pyrite fraction, remaining chalcopyrite fraction, sulfate concentration, and pH prove that these relationships can be successfully validated. The results obtained also reveal that GEP can be applied as a newfangled method in order to predict the AMD generation process.
Sun, 01 Nov 2020 20:30:00 +0100

Behavior of a Tunnel and its Neighboring Joint with and without Presence of Rock Bolt under ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1813_195.html
In this work, the interaction between the semicircular space and the neighboring joint with and without the presence of rock bolts was investigated using the particle flow code (PFC) approach. For this purpose, firstly, the calibration of PFC was performed using both the Brazilian experimental test and the uniaxial compression test. Secondly, a numerical model with the dimension of 100 mm * 100 mm was prepared. A semicircular space with a radius of 25 mm was situated below the model. A joint with a length of 40 mm was situated above the space. The joint opening was 2 mm. The joint angles related to the horizontal direction were 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 75°. Totally, 6 different configurations of the semicircular space and neighboring joint were prepared. These models were tested with and without the presence of vertical rock bolts by the biaxial test. The rock bolt length was 50 mm. The value of the lateral force was fixed at 2 MPa. An axial force was applied to the model till the final failure occurred. The results obtained showed that the presence of rock bolts changed the failure pattern of the numerical model. In the absence of rock bolts, two tensile wing cracks initiated from the joint tip and propagated diagonally till coalescence from the model boundary. Also several shear bands were initiated in the left and right sides of the tunnel. In the presence of rock bolts, several shear bands were initiated in the left and right sides of the tunnel. The compressive strength with the presence of rock bolts was more than that without the presence of rock bolts. The failure stress had a minimum value when the joint angle was 45°.
Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100

Sensitivity analysis of stress and cracking in rock mass blasting using numerical modelling
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1883_0.html
Drilling and blasting have numerous applications in the civil and mining engineering. Due to the two major components of rock masses, namely the intact rock matrix and the discontinuities, their behavior is a complicated process to be analyzed. The purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of the geomechanical and geometrical parameters of rock and discontinuities on the rock mass blasting using the UDEC software. To this end, a 2D distinct element code (DEM) code is used to simulate the stress distribution around three blast holes in some points and propagation of the radial cracks caused by blasting. The critical parameters analyzed for this aim include the normal stiffness (JKN) and shear stiffness (JKS), spacing, angle and persistence of joint, shear and bulk modulus, density of rock, and borehole spacing. The results obtained show that the joint parameters and rock modulus have very significant effects, while the rock density has less a effect on the rock mass blasting. Also the stress level has a direct relationship with JKN, JKS, bulk modulus, and the shear modulus has an inverse relationship with the rock density. Moreover, the stress variation in terms of spacing and joint angle indicates sinusoidal and repetitive changes with the place of target point with respect to the blast hole and joint set. Also with a decrease in the JKN and JKS values, the radial cracked and plastic zones around a blast hole show more development. With increase in the joint persistence, the plastic zones decrease around a blast hole.
Fri, 02 Oct 2020 20:30:00 +0100

Integrating Geophysical Attributes with New Cuckoo Search MachineLearning Algorithm to ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1857_195.html
The exploration methods are divided into the direct and indirect categories. Among these, the indirect geophysical methods are more time and costeffective compared with the direct methods. The target of the geophysical investigations is to obtain an accurate image from the underground features. The Induced polarization (IP) is one of the common methods used for metal sulfide ore detection. Since metal ores are scattered in the host rock in the Zarshouran mine area, IP is considered as a major exploration method. Parallel to IP, the resistivity data gathering and processing are done to get a more accurate interpretation. In this work, we try to integrate the IP/RS geophysical attributes with borehole grade analyses and geological information using the cuckoo search machinelearning algorithm in order to estimate the silver grade values. The results obtained show that it is possible to estimate the grade values from the geophysical data accurately, especially in the areas without drilling data. This reduces the costs and time of the exploration and ore reserves estimation. Comparing the results of the intelligent inversion with the numerical methods, as the major tools to invert the geophysical data to the ore model, demonstrate a superior correlation between the results.
Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100

A proposed biochemical protocol to isolate and characterize the acidophilic bacteria from ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1902_0.html
Indigenous acidophilic bacteria separated from minewaste can be used in return for the addition of the reagents like sulfuric acid. Among the tailings bacteria, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans are of the moststudied ones for the bioleaching and bioremediation of elements. In this work, the isolation and characterization of the mentioned bacteria are studied by a proposed biochemical protocol. The sequential cultivation of the soil bacteria in a series of liquid media and solid culture medium cause the separation of bacteria. A biochemical method is used to characterize the isolated strains of the native bacteria. The changes in the Eh, pH, and culture medium color are checked in order to control the bacterial growth in a 9K liquid medium. At the first step of the sequential cultivation, the amount of nutrient broth is the main factor that affects the complete isolation of Acidithiobacillus bacteria. The trivial dosage of nutrient broth does not lead to the desired proliferation of the bacteria in the tailings soil. 8 g L1 of the nutrient broth is suitable to increase the initial number of bacteria in the soil significantly. In the next steps, the bacteria are separated from the soil, and pure strains of A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans are isolated using a 9K medium. Final pure strains are achieved during the two steps of streak cultivation of bacteria in the soil medium of nutrient agar.
Fri, 20 Nov 2020 20:30:00 +0100

Investigating and Ranking Blasting Patterns to Reduce Ground Vibration using Soft Computing ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1833_195.html
The blasting method is one of the most important operations in most openpit mines that has a priority over the other mechanical excavation methods due to its costeffectiveness and flexibility in operation. However, the blasting operation, especially in surface mines, imposes some environmental problems including the ground vibration as one of the most important ones. In this work, an evaluation system is provided to study and select the best blasting pattern in order to reduce the ground vibration as one of the hazards in using the blasting method. In this work, 45 blasting patterns used for the Sungun copper mine are studied and evaluated to help determine the most suitable and optimum blasting pattern for reducing the ground vibration. Additionally, due to the lack of certainty in the nature of ground and the analyses relating to this drilling system, in the first step, a combination of the imperialist competitive algorithm and kmeans algorithm is used for clustering the measured data. In the second step, one of the multicriteria decisionmaking methods, namely TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution), is used for the final ranking. Finally, after evaluating and ranking the studied patterns, the blasting pattern No. 27 is selected. This pattern is used with the properties including a hole diameter of 16.5 cm, number of holes of 13, spacing of 4 m, burden of 3 m, and ammonium nitrate fuel oil of 1100 Kg as the most appropriate blasting pattern leading to the minimum ground vibration and reduction of damages to the environment and structures constructed around the mine.
Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100

Delineation of alteration zones based on Wavelet Neural Network (WNN) and ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1897_0.html
In this paper, we aim to achieve two specific objectives. The first one is to examine the applicability of wavelet neural network (WNN) technique in ore grade estimation, which is based on integration between wavelet theory and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Different wavelets are applied as activation functions to estimate Cu grade of borehole data in the hypogene zone of porphyry ore deposit, ShahreBabak district, SE Iran. WNN parameters such as dilation and translation are fixed and only the weights of the network are optimized during its learning process. The efficacy of this type of network in function learning and estimation is compared with Ordinary Kriging (OK). Secondly, we aim to delineate the potassic and phyllic alteration regions in the hypogene zone of Cu porphyry deposit based on the estimation obtained of WNN and OK methods, and utilize Concentration–Volume (C–V) fractal model. In this regard, at first C–V log–log plots are generated based on the results of OK and WNN. The plots then are used to determine the Cu threshold values of the alteration zones. To investigate the correlation between geological model and CV fractal results, the log ratio matrix is applied. The results showed that, Cu values less than 1.1% from WNN have more overlapped voxels with phyllic alteration zone by overall accuracy (OA) of 0.74. Spatial correlation between the potassic alteration zones resulted from 3D geological modeling and high concentration zones in CV fractal model showed that the alteration zone has Cu values between 1.1% and 2.2% with OA of 0.72 and finally have an appropriate overlap with Cu values greater than 2.2% with OA of 0.7. Generally, the results showed that the WNN (Morlet activation function) with OA greater than OK can be can be a suitable and robust tool for quantitative modeling of alteration zones, instead of qualitative methods.
Sat, 07 Nov 2020 20:30:00 +0100

A New Method for Predicting Indirect Tensile Strength of Sandstone Rock Samples
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1834_195.html
The tensile strength (σt) of a rock plays an important role in the reliable construction of several civil structures such as dam foundations and types of tunnels and excavations. Determination of σt in the laboratory can be expensive, difficult, and timeconsuming for certain projects. Due to the difficulties associated with the experimental procedure, it is usually preferred that the σt is evaluated in an indirect way. For these reasons, in this work, the adaptive networkbased fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used to build a prediction model for the indirect prediction of σt of sandstone rock samples from their physical properties. Two ANFIS models are implemented, i.e. ANFISsubtractive clustering method (SCM) and ANFISfuzzy cmeans clustering method (FCM). The ANFIS models are applied to the data available in the open source literature. In these models, the porosity, specific gravity, dry unit weight, and saturated unit weight are utilized as the input parameters, while the measured σt is the output parameter. The performance of the proposed predictive models is examined according to two performance indices, i.e. mean square error (MSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). The results obtained from this work indicate that ANFISSCM is a reliable method to predict σt with a high degree of accuracy.
Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100

A New SemiQuantitative Approach to Open Pit Mine Sustainability Assessment
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1899_0.html
Sustainability assessment has received numerous attentions in the mining industry. Mining sustainability includes the environmental, economic, and social dimensions, and a sustainable development is achieved when all these dimensions improve in a balanced manner. Therefore, to measure the sustainability score of a mine, we require an approach that evaluates all these three dimensions of mining sustainability. Some frameworks have been developed to compute the sustainability score of mining activities; however, some of them are very complicated and the others do not cover all the environmental, economic, and social aspects of sustainability. In order to fill this gap, this work was designed to introduce a practical approach to determine the score of mining sustainability. In order to develop this approach, initially, 14 negative and positive influential macro factors in the sustainability of openpit mines were identified. Then the important levels of the factors were estimated based on the comments and scores of some experts. Two checklists were constructed for the negative and positive factors. The sustainability score was computed using these checklists and the importance levels of the factors. The score range was between 100 and +100. In order to implement the proposed approach, the Angouran lead and zinc mine was selected. The sustainability score of the Angouran mine was +47.91, which indicated that the this mine had a sustainable condition. This score could increase through modification of some factors.
Mon, 09 Nov 2020 20:30:00 +0100

Development of a New Experimental Technique for Dynamic Fracture Toughness Measurement of Rocks ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1840_195.html
The dynamic fracture characteristics of rock specimens play an important role in analyzing the fracture issues such as blasting, hydraulic fracturing, and design of supports. Several experimental methods have been developed for determining the dynamic fracture properties of the rock samples. However, many used setups have been manufactured for metal specimens, and are not suitable and efficient for rocks. In this work, a new technique is developed to measure the dynamic fracture toughness of rock samples and fracture energy by modifying the drop weight test machine. The idea of wave transmission bar from the Hopkinson pressure bar test is applied to drop weight test. The intact samples of limestone are tested using the modified machine, and the results obtained are analyzed. The results indicate that the dynamic fracture toughness and dynamic fracture energy have a direct linear relationship with the loading rate. The dynamic fracture toughness and dynamic fracture energy of limestone core specimens under the loading rates of 0.120.56kN/µS are measured between 9.618.51MPa√m and 1249.734646.08J/m2, respectively. In order to verify the experimental results, a series of numerical simulation are conducted in the ABAQUS software. Comparison of the results show a good agreement where the difference between the numerical and experimental outputs is less than 4%. It can be concluded that the new technique on modifying the drop weight test can be applicable for measurement of the dynamic behavior of rock samples. However, more tests on different rock types are recommended for confirmation of the application of the developed technique for a wider range of rocks.
Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100

On the accuracy of discrete element method (DEM) simulations: Rolling and sliding friction ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1904_0.html
The discrete element method (DEM) has been used as a popular simulation method in order to verify the designs by visualizing how materials flow through complex equipment geometries. Although DEM simulation is a powerful design tool, finding a DEM model that includes all real material properties is not computationally feasible. In order to obtain more realistic results, particle energy loss due to rolling friction has been highlighted by many researchers using various models to implement a reverse torque. On account of the complexity of the problem, there is no unique model for all applications (i.e. dynamic and pseudostatic regimes). In this research work, an inhouse developed DEM software (KMPCDEM©) was used to assess the robustness of three models by comparing the repose angle obtained through the draw down test. The elastic–plastic spring dashpot model was then modified based on considering the individual parameters instead of the relative parameters of two contact entities. The results showed that the modified model could produce a higher repose angle. The modified model was used for the calibration of DEM input parameters in the simulation of repose angle of iron ore pellets in a laboratory setup of the draw down test. Comparison of the calibrated DEM simulation (using 0.0007 and 0.75 for the rolling and sliding friction coefficients, respectively) with the laboratory results showed a good agreement between the predicted and measured angle of repose. The noncalibrated DEM simulations are susceptible to error, and therefore, it is strongly recommended to use the laboratory experiments to characterize the materials before using the DEM simulation as a design tool of industrial equipment.
Sat, 21 Nov 2020 20:30:00 +0100

Investigation of Mechanism of Adsorption of Xanthate and Hydroxamate on Malachite
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1846_195.html
Copper oxide minerals such as malachite do not respond well to the traditional copper sulfide collectors, and require alternative flotation schemes. In many copper ore mines, significant copper oxide minerals, especially malachite, are associated with sulfide minerals. Considering that xanthates are most widely used in the flotation of sulfide minerals as well as copper sulfide minerals and, hydroxamate has shown a good selectivity for copper oxide minerals. Use of the synergistic effect of xanthate and hydroxamate can be an effective way to increase the flotation efficiency of copper oxide minerals along with sulfide minerals. In this work, we investigate the individual interactions of potassium amyl xanthate (PAX) and potassium alkyl hydroxamate (HXM) with the natural malachite and explore their synergistic effects on the malachite flotation. The results of solubility of malachite in collector solutions, changes in the malachite surface potential, adsorption kinetics, adsorption densities, dynamic contact angles, FTIR analyses, and smallscale flotations, are discussed. The results obtained demonstrate that PAX and HXM are chemically coadsorbed on the malachite surface, and the amount of PAX adsorbed on the malachite surface is considerably increased in the mixed PAX/HXM systems because of the coadsorption mechanism. The flotation results confirm that the mixed PAX/HXM exhibit a superior flotation performance of malachite compared to the individual system of PAX or HXM. Based on these results, the mixed PAX/HXM exhibit a remarkable synergism effect on malachite surface hydrophobicity.
Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100

Stability analysis of blockflexural toppling of rock blocks with round edges
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1906_0.html
One of the most conventional toppling instabilities is the blockflexural toppling failure that occurs in civil and mining engineering projects. In this kind of failure, some rock columns are broken due to tensile bending stresses, and the others are overturned due to their weights, and finally, all of the blocks topple together. A specific feature of spheroidal weathering is the rounding of the rock column edges. In the mode of flexural toppling failure, rounding of edges happens only at the upper corners of the block but in the block toppling failure mode, due to the presence of crossjoints at the base of the block, rounding of edges also occurs at the base of the block. In this work, a theoretical model is offered to blockflexural toppling failure regarding the erosion phenomenon. The suggested methodology is evaluated through a typical example and a case study. The results of this research work illustrate that in the stable slopes with rectangular prismatic blocks, where the safety factor value is close to one, the slope is subjected to failure due to erosion. Also the results obtained show that the recommended approach is conservative in analyzing the blockflexural toppling failure, and this approach can be applied to evaluate this failure.
Tue, 24 Nov 2020 20:30:00 +0100

Risk assessment of flyrock in surface mines using FFTAMCDMs combination
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1666_0.html
The drilling and blasting method is the first choice for rock breakage in surface or underground mines due to its high flexibility against variations and low investment costs. However, any method has its own advantages and disadvantages. The flyrock phenomenon is one of the drilling and blasting disadvantages that the mining engineers have always been faced with in the surface mine blasting operations. Flyrock may lead to fatality and destroy mine equipment and structures, and so its risk assessment is very essential. For a flyrock risk assessment, the causing events that lead to flyrock along with their probabilities and severities should be identified. For this aim, a combination of the fuzzy fault tree analysis and multicriteria decisionmaking methods are used. Based on the results obtained, the relevant causing events of flyrock in surface mines can be categorized into three major groups: design error, human error, and natural error. Finally, using the obtained probabilities and severities for these three groups, the risk matrix is constructed. Based on the risk matrix, the risk numbers of flyrock occurrence due to the design errors, human errors, and natural influence are 12, 6, and 2, respectively. Hence, in order to minimize the flyrock risk, it is very vital for the engineers to select appropriate values for the design events of blasting pattern such as burden, spacing, delays, and hole diameter.
Wed, 22 Jan 2020 20:30:00 +0100

Evaluation of Mine Reclamation Criteria Using DelphiFuzzy Approach
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1847_0.html
Mining and mineral industry have important role in supporting sustainable development of countries. Many countries rely on the income derived from natural resources, but the exploitation of the natural resources may impact the environment and destroy the ecosystem. Mining activities usually affect the surrounding lands and ecosystems. The natural, social, and economic environments are part of this ecosystem that are directly involved in these activities. In order to reduce environmentally destructive effects of mining on ecosystem, some important measures must be taken to minimize the negative impacts of mining and related industries. In this paper, for the first time in Iran, a study was conducted to define and categorize the reclamation criteria in three largest iron ore mines. During this research, an attempt was made to establish, define and evaluate forty reclamation criteria. Since the number of criteria is high, to adopt the best practice in mine reclamation program, these criteria should be prioritized. The defined criteria ranked by mining experts, mining managers and related university professors according to their experience and knowledge. The raw collected data were evaluated, processed by DelphiFuzzy process and finally analyzed using the MultiCriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method. The prioritized criteria can provide the authorities with a guideline to start reclamation planning based on the mining and environment requirements and budgeting and also to make the most fruitful, effective and lowcost decisions.
Fri, 21 Aug 2020 19:30:00 +0100

Comparative Analysis of Coal Miner’s Fatalities by Fuzzy Logic
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1774_0.html
In this work, we employ the fuzzy logic technique to achieve and present, for the first time, a proper analysis of the actual intensity of the increase in the coal miners’ fatality rates in Pakistan from 2010 to 2018, compared with China and India, with an objective to minimize the impact of incidents on the miners’ fatalities. The average and yearwise fatality rates in Pakistan, compared with China and India, are used for the fuzzy logic technique in order to calculate the actual degree of flexibility for the surging fatalities. The findings show that both the average (20102018) and yearwise fatality rates in 2011, 2015, and 2018 are 2.44, 1.74, and 1.6, respectively. In the fuzzy logic technique, the variables whose membership function (µ) values are ≥ 1 represent the absolute truth. The membership function values for the years 2011, 2015, and 2018 are alarmingly high for the fatalities of coal miners. Similarly, except for 2014 and 2010, where 0 represents the absolute falseness, the results for the remaining years indicate high fatality rates with a flexibility (or small extent) of its corresponding membership function (µ) values such as 0.623, 0.739, 0.219, 0.173 and 0.115, and 0.714, 0.24, 0.01, 0.324 and 0.317 using the average and yearwise analysis, respectively, compared with China. Likewise, the fuzzy logic membership function (µ) values compared with India in the remaining years are 0.704, 0.795, 0.386, 0.159, 0.352 and 0.306, and 0.675, 0.795, 0.386, 0.186, 0.321 and 0.322, respectively. The proposed fuzzy logic analysis has been founded based on the theory of fuzzy sets to properly identify the miners’ fatalities, and also to suggest the implementation of appropriate recommendations to reduce the fatalities in the coal mines in Pakistan.
Sat, 23 May 2020 19:30:00 +0100

Probabilistic prediction of acid mine drainage generation risk based on pyrite oxidation ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1814_0.html
In this paper, we investigate a probabilistic approach in order to predict how acid mine drainage is generated within coal waste particles in NE Iran. For this, a database is built based on the previous studies that have investigated the pyrite oxidation process within the oldest abandoned pile during the last decade. According to the available data, the remaining pyrite fraction is considered as the output data, while the depth of the waste, concentration of bicarbonate, and oxygen fraction are the input parameters. Then the best probability distribution functions are determined on each one of the input parameters based on a Monte Carlo simulation. Also the best relationships between the input data and the output data are presented regarding the statistical regression analyses. Afterward, the best probability distribution functions of the input parameters are inserted into the linear statistical relationships to find the probability distribution function of the output data. The results obtained reveal that the values of the remaining pyrite fraction are between 0.764% and 1.811% at a probability level of 90%. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis carried out by applying the tornado diagram shows that the pile depth has, by far, the most critical factors affecting the pyrite remaining
Fri, 19 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100

Determination of an optimum interface between open pit and underground mining activities in ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1839_0.html
Due to the gradual deepening of the Mazinu coal seams from the ground surface, both the openpit (OP) and underground (UG) mining methods can be applied for extracting them. Thus, it is a necessity to determine the interface of these mining methods optimally. The present paper aims to determine this interface by generating different scenarios using the OP phases and their relative underground stopes, and comparing them with each other. In this regard, an economic block model is created based on the calorific value of the coal portions involved by each block along with the required economic and technical parameters. Then using the LerchsGrossman algorithm, the OP phases are created. Proportional to each phase, the production scheduling of underground stopes is executed. Finally, in order to opt the best scenario, the net present value of the whole project (OP & UG) achieved from different scenarios are compared with each other. The results obtained indicate that the optimum interface of the OP and UG mining activities correspond to the ultimate OP limit with a maximum depth of 200 m from the ground surface.
Sun, 02 Aug 2020 19:30:00 +0100

Applying a technicaleconomic approach to calculation of optimum panel width in longwall mining ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1891_0.html
Providing an approach to calculate a suitable panel width for the longwall mining method is considered considering both the technical and economic factors. Based on the investigations carried out, a technicaleconomic model is proposed to calculate a suitable panel width. The proposed model is a combination of the rock engineering systembased model and the technical relationships to estimate the expected actual face advance rate of the longwall panel and also the economic relationships to determine the operational costs. Applying the technical conditions to the presented model is conducted by the vulnerability index of the advancing operation, which considers the face advance rate as the main important factor that controls the operational costs of the longwall face. The performance evaluation of the presented model is possible by the recordable field data, which is one of its advantages. This process is carried out by a case study, and the results obtained indicate that the developed approach can provide an applicable tool to calculate a suitable panel width.
Fri, 09 Oct 2020 20:30:00 +0100

Quantifying roof falling potential based on the CMRR method by incorporating DEMATELMABAC ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1895_0.html
This work incorporates the DEMATELMABAC method for quantifying the potential of roof fall in coal mines by means of the coal mine roof rating (CMRR) parameters. For this purpose, considering the roof weighting interval as a quantitative criterion for the stability of the roof, the immediate roof falling potential was quantified and ranked in 15 stopes of Eastern Alborz Coal Mines Company. In this regard, on the basis of the experts’ judgments, the fuzzy DEMATEL method was used for designation weights of the parameters, and the MABAC method was incorporated to quantify and rank the stopes (alternatives). “UCS of roof” and “joint spacing” in the immediate roof were found to be the most important parameters that controlled roof falling in stopes; and “joint persistence” was also found to be a quite significant parameter. Finding confirms that overall strength of rood rock mass plays a main role in the falling potential. Comparison of the coefficients of determination (R2) between the weighting interval and proposed model with that and original CMRR indicated more than 15% increase, which represented that the new proposed model was more accurate to quantify roof quality. The findings of this work show that using this combined method and specializing the CMRR method for a given mine geocondition to assess the quality of the roof and its potential of collapse possesses a higher performance when compared with the original CMRR method.
Tue, 03 Nov 2020 20:30:00 +0100

Study of Rock pillar failure consisting nonpersistent joint using experimental test and ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1907_0.html
The experimental and numerical methods were used to investigate the effects of joint number and joint angle on the failure behaviour of rock pillars under a uniaxial compressive test. The gypsum samples with dimensions of 200 mm × 200 mm × 50 mm were prepared. The compressive strength of the intact sample was 7.2 MPa. The imbeded joint was placed inside the specimen. The joint length was 6 cm in a constant joint length. There were several numbers of cracks including one, two, and three cracks. In the experimental tests, the angles of the diagonal plane with respect to the horizontal axis were 0, 30, 60, and 90 degrees. The axial load was applied to the model with a rate of 0.01 mm/s. In the fracture analysis code, the angles of the diagonal plane with respect to the horizontal axis were 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 degrees. A constant axial load of 135 MPa was applied to the model. The results obtained showed that the failure process was mostly dependent on the angle and number of the nonpersistent joint. The compressive strength of the samples was dependent on the fracture pattern and the failure mechanism of the discontinuities. It was shown that the tensile cracks were developed whithin the model. The strength of the specimens increased by increasing both the joint angle and joint number. The joint angle of 45° KI had the maximum quantity. The stress intensity factor was decreased by increasing the joint number. The failure pattern and failure strength were analogous in both methods, i.e. the experimental testing and the numerical simulation methods.
Fri, 27 Nov 2020 20:30:00 +0100

Chemical characteristics of discharges from two derelict Coal Mine Sites in Enugu Nigeria ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1909_0.html
In this study, the chemical composition of water and soils contiguous to two abandoned coal mines in southeastern Nigeria, was assessed to evaluate the impact of water flow from the mines ponds on the geoenvironment and potential for acid mine drainage (AMD). Parameters including the pH, anions and cations, and the heavy metals were measured. These were used to evaluate contamination/pollution using hybrid factors including Pollution Load Index, factors, enrichment factors, pollution load index and index of geoaccumulation. The pH range of 3.4 to 5.9 classified the water as weakly to strongly acidic, typical of AMD. The SO42– ion, which indicates pollution by mine waters, showed moderate to high concentrations. Iron, zinc lead and copper were the most abundant heavy metals. Pollution Load Index values were greater than unity which show progressive deterioration in water and sediment quality. The Enrichment Factor values of up to 1 indicated enrichment through lithogenic and anthropogenic sources. The mine dumps serve as pools that can release toxic heavy metals into the water bodies by various processes of remobilization. Based on the lithology, mineralogy, chemical concentrations and environmental factors, the study has shown that there exists a potential for the generation of AMD. The heavy metals enriched mine flow, especially iron, empty into the nearby water bodies which serve as sources of municipal water supply. Consumption of untreated water over a prolonged period from these water sources may be detrimental to health. Remedial measure and continuous monitoring are recommended for good environmental stewardship.
Mon, 30 Nov 2020 20:30:00 +0100