Journal of Mining and EnvironmentJournal of Mining and Environment
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/
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Feed provided by Journal of Mining and Environment. Click to visit.Optimization of parameters affecting recovery of copper from Sarcheshmeh low-grade sulfide ore ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_848_111.html
In this work, the parameters affecting the recovery of copper from the low-grade sulfide minerals of Sarcheshmeh Copper Mine were studied. A low-grade sulfide ore was used with a copper grade of 0.25%, which was about 28% of the mineral oxide, and the sulfide minerals made up the rest. Much more sulfide minerals were found to be pyrite and most of the gangue minerals were quartz, anorthite, biotite, and muscovite. In order to investigate, simultaneously, the solids (10 to 20%) and acidity (1.5 to 2.5) and shaking (110 to 150 rpm), the separation of bacteria from Sarcheshmeh Copper Mine was carried out. After adjustment of the sample, bio-leaching tests were performed in accordance with the pattern defined by the software DX7 in shaking flasks, and the Cu recovery was modeled and optimized using the response surface methodology. The influential parameters were comprehensively studied. The central composite design methodology was used as the design matrix to predict the optimal level of these parameters. Then the model equation was optimized. The results obtained showed that increasing solids (from 10 to 20%) was bad for bacteria. The highest copper recovery was equivalent to 69.91%, obtained after 21 days at 35 degrees using the Acidi Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans bacteria and a K9 medium with a pulp density of 10% and pH 1.5.Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +0100Determination of scratching energy index for Cerchar abrasion test
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_984_0.html
Rock abrasivity is an essential factor for selecting cutting tools, estimating tool wear and life, and ultimately, matching various mechanized excavation systems with a given geologic condition. It also assists engineers to determine economic limits of different cutting tools and machines used in civil and mining projects. The Cerchar abrasion test is a simple and most widely used method for rock abrasivity assessments. However, it has some shortcomings to describe the steel-rock interaction during the cutting process. In this work, two new parameters are used to describe the pin-rock interaction in the Cerchar abrasion test and to evaluate the efficiency of the rock scratching process. A set of 41 different rock samples are tested by a newly developed testing device. The device provides a more precise control of the testing operational parameters, and measures the applied frictional force on the pin and its horizontal and vertical displacements on the sample surface. The results obtained are used to calculate the Modified Cerchar Abrasion Index (MCAI) and the Scratch Energy Index (SEi), as two newly developed parameters. The accuracy of the calculated parameters is discussed. Our investigations show that MCAI has closer correlations with rock mechanical parameters than CAI, and therefore, has a higher potential to estimate the rock cutting tool wear in tunneling applications. Also SEi shows sensible correlations with sample hardness and mechanical properties. The results obtained show that SEi can be used to compare the efficiency of various pin hardnesses to create scratches on various rock samples, and could be used as a determinative parameter in selecting the cutting tool hardness.Thu, 27 Jul 2017 19:30:00 +0100Modofication of the Sarcheshmeh copper complex flotation circuit in response to a reduction in ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_879_111.html
The new copper processing plant of the Sarcheshmeh copper complex consists of two parallel circuits. After a primary crushing, the ore is sent to a SAG mill, and the product is further ground in a ball mill. The overflow of the hydrocyclones is fed to a flotation circuit that contains 8 rougher tank cells (RCS130), 3 cleaner cells (RCS50), 5 scavenger cells (RCS50), and a flotation column (as recleaner). The circuit was initially designed to process a feed containing 0.8% Cu but due to a change in the ore type, the feed grade decreased to 0.6% Cu. This resulted in a reduction in the final concentrate grade and the recovery from 28% and 85.5% to 24% and 84.4%, respectively. Based on the original design, the copper and silica recovery in the cleaner cells should be 69% and 55%, respectively, but these values increased to 85% and 75% due to a higher retention time. The rather high silica recovery was found to be the main source of the lower final concentrate grade. In order to reduce the retention time of particles in the cleaner cell from 13.7 to 6.9 min, the rougher concentrates of two parallel circuits were fed to only one cleaner-scavenger and regrind circuit. This modification increased the cleaner and final concentrate grade from 15.1% and 24.5% to 17% and 26%, respectively. The overall outcome of the circuit modification was evaluated to be a 10% reduction in the energy consumption without any loss in the overall copper recovery.Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +0100Interactional effects of bubble size, particle size, and collector dosage on bubble loading in ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_978_0.html
The success of flotation operation depends upon the thriving interactions of chemical and physical variables. In this work, the effects of particle size, bubble size, and collector dosage on the bubble loading in a continuous flotation column were investigated. In other words, this work was mainly concerned with the evaluation of the true flotation response to the changes in the operating variables in column flotation. Two bubble sizes of 0.8 and 1.8 mm, three size fractions of 63-106, 106-150, and 150-300 μm, and three different dosages of dodecylamine, as the collector, were tested. According to the results obtained, the particle size fraction of 106-150 μm had the maximum bubble loading for bubble diameter of 1.8 mm, while the particle size of 63-106 μm had the maximum bubble loading for bubble diameter of 0.8 mm. It was also shown that increasing the bubble diameter from 0.8 to 1.8 mm increased the bubble loading in all the particle size fractions and collector dosages. However, the mass loading of air bubbles was strongly related to the collector dosage (contact angle), especially for coarse particles. The amount of collector dosage had an upper limit due to the clustering event, which significantly affected the bubble loading. The clustering was found to be more important in the presence of small particles due to a higher number of particles attached to the bubble surface. It was shown that such interactions of variables of true flotation could reasonably be monitored by the bubble loading measurement.Sun, 16 Jul 2017 19:30:00 +0100Application of perfect mixing model for simulation of vertical roller mills
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_931_111.html
Vertical roller mills (VRMs) are well-established grinding equipment for various tasks in the coal and cement industry. There are few studies on simulation of VRMs. In this research work, application of perfect mixing model for simulation of a VRM in a cement grinding plant was investigated. Two sampling surveys were carried out on the VRM circuit. The samples and data from the first survey were used for the experimental determination of the breakage function and model calibration. The breakage distribution function of the material was determined by the compressed bed breakage test in a piston-die cell device. The model parameters were back-calculated using the feed and product size distribution data and the breakage distribution function. The model parameters obtained were used for simulation of the second survey and validation of the model. The simulation results showed that the simulated product size distribution curves fitted the measured product curves quite well.Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +0100Long-term stability analysis of goaf area in longwall mining using minimum potential energy theory
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_991_0.html
Estimation of the height of caved and fractured zones above a longwall panel along with the stability conditions of the goaf area are very crucial to determine the abutment stresses, ground subsidence, and face support as well as designing the surrounding gates and intervening pillars. In this work, the height of caving-fracturing zone above the mined panel is considered as the height of destressed zone (HDZ). The long-term estimation of this height plays a key role in the accurate determination of maximum ground surface subsidence and the amount of transferred loads towards the neighbouring solid sections. This paper presents a new stability analysis model of caved material system in the goaf area. For this aim, a theoretical energy-based model of HDZ determination in long-term condition is developed. Then the stability condition of the caved material system is investigated using the principle of minimum potential energy. On the basis of the actual data gathered from the literature, the unstable time period of the caved material system is also calculated. Moreover, the effects of time- and temperature-related parameters and constant coefficients as well as their inherent relations with HDZ are evaluated. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis shows that the two temperature-related constants material constant and time are the most effective variables in HDZ, and the slope of material hardening is the least effective one. The estimated HDZ and the stability time of the caved materials can be successfully applied to determine the induced stress and the maximum surface subsidence, respectively, due to longwall mining.Fri, 18 Aug 2017 19:30:00 +0100Sub-pixel classification of hydrothermal alteration zones using a kernel-based method and ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_781_111.html
Remote sensing image analysis can be carried out at the per-pixel (hard) and sub-pixel (soft) scales. The former refers to the purity of image pixels, while the latter refers to the mixed spectra resulting from all objects composing of the image pixels. The spectral unmixing methods have been developed to decompose mixed spectra. Data-driven unmixing algorithms utilize the reference data called training samples and end-members. The performance of algorithms using training samples can be negatively affected by the curse of dimensionality. This problem is usually observed in the hyperspectral image classification, especially when a low number of training samples, compared to the large number of spectral bands of hyperspectral data, are available. An unmixing method that is not highly impressed by the curse of dimensionality is a promising option. Among all the methods used, Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a more robust algorithm used to overcome this problem. In this work, our aim is to evaluate the capability of a regression mode of SVM, namely Support Vector Regression (SVR), for the sub-pixel classification of alteration zones. As a case study, the Hyperion data for the Sarcheshmeh, Darrehzar, and Sereidun districts is used. The main classification steps rely on 20 field samples taken from the Darrehzar area divided into 12 and 8 samples for training and validation, respectively. The accuracy of the sub-pixel maps obtained demonstrate that SVR can be successfully applied in the curse of dimensional conditions, where the size of the training samples (12) is very low compared to the number of spectral bands (165).Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +0100An insight into effect of surface functional groups on reactivity of Sphalerite (110) surface ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_992_0.html
The reactivity of the protonated and hydroxylated sphalerite (1 1 0) surface with xanthate was simulated using the density functional theory (DFT). The difference between the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the sphalerite surface and the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital of xanthate ( was used to compare the reaction capability of xanthate with fresh and functionalized surfaces. The Mulliken atomic charge analysis was used to provide an in-depth insight into the effects of –H+ and –OH- groups on the reactivity of Zn atoms at the sphalerite surface. The values for different systems showed that the protonated surfaces exposed a higher reactivity with xanthate than the fresh and hydroxylated surfaces. The results of the Mulliken atomic charge analysis demonstrated that after the formation of –H+ and –OH- contained groups on the sphalerite surface, the surface atoms found a new charge due to the reduction and oxidation mechanism. In addition, the results obtained revealed that the electrophilicity of Zn atoms after the ion adsorption could be considered as a key factor in the reactivity of the sphalerite surface with xanthate. The DFT-based calculations also showed that different alkyl groups of xanthate had no significant influence on the reactivity of their head groups. The findings of this research work provided insights into the reactions of the sphalerite surface with xanthate.Sat, 19 Aug 2017 19:30:00 +0100Prediction of effect of fine particle removal on efficiency of a spiral circuit by size-by-size ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_932_111.html
Partition curves are widely used to determine the spiral separator efficiency. In this work, the partition curves were used in order to investigate the particle transportation to concentrate and tailing streams. Simulation of fine particle removal using the size-by-size partition curves showed that the recovery of gangue particles to concentrate can decrease 8.7%. It also showed that the recovery of valuable particles would increase by 6.5% and reaches 90%. Therefore, pilot-scale tests were conducted to verify the simulations. After removal of fine particles from the feed of spiral separator and treating the removed materials with high-intensity magnetic separator, total mass recovery, iron recovery, and iron grade increased from 71%, 85%, and 54% to 80%, 91%, and 56%, respectively.Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +0100Prediction of ultimate strength of shale using artificial neural network
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1012_0.html
A rock failure criterion is very important for prediction of the ultimate strength in rock mechanics and geotechnics; it is determined for rock mechanics studies in mining, civil, and oil wellborn drilling operations. Also shales are among the most difficult to treat formations. Therefore, in this research work, using the artificial neural network (ANN), a model was built to predict the ultimate strength of shale, and comparison was made with support vector machine (SVM), multiple linear regression models, and the widely used conventional polyaxial failure criteria in the stability analysis of rock structures, Drucker-Prager, and Mogi-Coulomb. For building the model, the corresponding results of triaxial and polyaxial tests have been performed on shales by various researchers. They were collected from reliable published articles. The results obtained showed that a feed forward back propagation multi-layer perceptron (MLP) was used and trained using the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm, and the 2-4-1 architecture with root-mean-square-error (RMSE) of 24.41 exhibits a better performance in predicting the ultimate strength of shale in comparison with the investigated models. Also for further validation, triaxial tests were performed on the deep shale specimens. They were prepared from the Ramshire oilfield in SW Iran. The results obtained were compared with ANN, SVM, multiple linear regression models, and the conventional failure criterion prediction. They showed that the ANN model predicted ultimate strength with a minimum error and RMSE being equal to 43.81. Then the model was used for prediction of the threshold broken pressure shale layer in the Gachsaran oilfield in Iran. For this, a vertical and horizontal stress was calculated based on a depth of shale layer. The threshold broken pressure was calculated for the beginning and ending of a shale layer to be 154.21 and 167.98 Mpa, respectively.Wed, 13 Sep 2017 19:30:00 +0100An improvement in RTM method to image steep dip petroleum bearing structures and its ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_635_111.html
In this paper, first the limitations of the ray-based method and the one-way wave-field extrapolation migration (WEM) in imaging steeply dipping structures are discussed by some examples. Then a new method of the reverse time migration (RTM), used in imaging such complex structures is presented. The proposed method uses a new wave-field extrapolator called the Leapfrog-Rapid Expansion Method (L-REM) for wave-field extrapolation. This improved method also includes a new imaging condition based on Poynting vector for wave-field separation and calculating the reflection angles. Afterwards, the results obtained for the application of the new RTM method are compared with those obtained by the harmonic-source method as a delay shot or plane wave RTM. Finally, the efficiency of these imaging methods is tested using the BP 2004 2D seismic dataset. The results obtained indicate the superiority of the presented RTM method in imaging such steep dip structures in comparison with the other imaging procedures.Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +0100Field study on Re and heavy metal phytoextraction and phytomining potentials by native plant ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1016_0.html
In the present work, we aimed to focus on the identification and characterization of the heavy metal-tolerant plant species growing spontaneously at the tailings site of the Sarcheshmeh copper mine, south of Iran. Our aim was to find the plant species that were potentially useful for phytoextraction purposes. The concentrations of As, Cu, Mo, Ni, Zn, and Re were analyzed in soil as well as in the shoots and roots of plant species separately by an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP–OES). The mean concentrations of As, Cu, Mo, Ni, Zn, and Re in soil were found to be 18.44±13.41, 1280±500.95, 25.06±13.33, 32.9±14.39, 251.82±95.82, and 1.7±0.78 mg kg-1, respectively. The translocation factor (TF) and the bioaccumulation factor (BCF) were defined and used to assess the amount of the elements accumulated in the shoots and roots of each plant species and to evaluate their potential for phytoextraction purposes. Based upon the results obtained and using the most common criteria, T. ramosissima, C. dactylon, A. leucoclada, and Z. fabago could strongly tolerate and extremely accumulate multiple metal(loid)s. Also Salsola kali, C. dactylon, A. leucoclada, and Z. fabago could be classified as hyperaccumulators for Re with TF and BCF greater than one and ten, respectively. The results of this work should be further developed in order to confirm the potential use of these species in phytoextraction programs.Sun, 17 Sep 2017 19:30:00 +0100Investigation of leaching kinetics of zinc from a low-grade ore in organic and inorganic acids
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_767_111.html
The leaching kinetics of a low-grade zinc oxide ore in different acid media was investigated with respect to the experimental variables including acid concentration, temperature, liquid to solid (L/S) ratio, and stirring speed. The results obtained showed that the leaching reagent concentration and the reaction temperature exerted significant effects on the extraction of zinc, whereas the L/S ratio and stirring speed exhibited a relatively moderate effect on the leaching rate. The maximum leaching rate with inorganic acids was obtained to be 90.76%, while the maximum zinc recovery with citric acid was determined to be 88.68%. It was found that the zinc leaching process followed the kinetic law of the shrinking core model. It was distinguished that the dissolution rate was controlled by diffusion through the fluid film in the HNO3 medium with the activation energy of 4.38 kJ/mol, whereas when dissolution was performed in the presence of HCl, H2SO4, and citric acid, an intermediate process (i.e. a physico-chemical process) was the rate-controlling step.Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +0100A comparative study of fractal models and U-statistic method to identify geochemical anomalies; ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1017_0.html
The most significant aspect of a geochemical exploration program is to define and separate the anomalous values from the background. In the past decades, geochemical anomalies have been identified by means of various methods. Most of the conventional statistical methods aiming at defining the geochemical concentration thresholds for separating anomalies from the background have limited the efficiency in the areas with complex geological settings. In this work, three methods including the Concentration-Area (C-A) and Spectrum-Area (S-A) fractal models, and the U-statistic method are applied to identify the geochemical anomalies in Avanj porphyry system due to a complex geological and tectonic setting. The results obtained show that the S-A and U-statistic methods present more acceptable outputs than the C-A method. The C-A model acts well to identify the geochemical anomalies within a region including a simple geochemical background; however, the model has limitations within a region including a complex geological setting, where each sub-area is characterized by different geochemical fields. The U-statistic method, by considering the location of sampling points, their spatial relation, and radius of influence for each point in the estimation of anomaly location, overcomes the limitations of the C-A model. The S-A model is a powerful tool to decompose mixed geochemical patterns into a geochemical anomaly map and a varied geochemical background map. The output of this method shows the analysis of geochemical data in the frequency domain, which can provide new exploratory information that may not be revealed in the spatial domain. Eventually, it can be pointed out that the accuracy of the S-A fractal model for determining the thresholds is higher than the other two methods mentioned.Tue, 19 Sep 2017 19:30:00 +0100Determination of geochemical anomalies and gold mineralized stages based on litho-geochemical ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_977_111.html
The Zarshuran Carlin-like gold deposit is located at the Takab Metallogenic belt in the northern part of the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, NW Iran. The high-grade ore bodies are mainly hosted by black shale and cream to gray massive limestone along the NNE-trending extensional fault/fracture zones. The aim of this investigation was to determine and separate the gold mineralized stages based on the surface litho-geochemical Au, Hg, and As data using the Concentration-Area (C-A) fractal model and stepwise factor analysis in the Zarshuran gold deposit. Three mineralized stages were determined by the C-A fractal modeling and factor analysis, which were correlated with the mineralized stages from geological studies. The main stage of Au mineralization was higher than 1.995 ppm, which was correlated with the main sulfidation stage, whereas the As and Hg highly intense anomalies (higher than 6409 and 19 ppm, respectively) were associated with the quartz-sulfide veins and veinlets. The results obtained by the C-A fractal model and stepwise factor analysis showed that the main gold mineralized stage occurred in the southern part of the Zarshuran deposit, which was correlated with the geological particulars.Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +0100A new approach for assessing stability of rock slopes considering centroids of weak zones
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1023_0.html
The intersection lines between discontinuity surfaces and their intersection points on the visible surfaces of any engineering structure may be the instability indicators. This paper describes a new approach to modelling the intersecting lines and points that would provide the first evaluation of any instability in an engineering structure characterized by the failure modes. In this work, the intersection lines were grouped according to their direction either in the reverse or in the same direction as the dip of the slope. Furthermore, the intersection lines are grouped according to various ranges of the interior friction angle, which can be selected by the users in a computer application developed for this work. The orientation of the intersecting lines and the location of the exposed intersection points are defined and assigned as the scatter points. These exposed points are clustered to determine the centroid locations. The K-means clustering is used in this step. Finally, all these analyses are integrated in a logical order, and the results obtained are used to assess the instabilities on the slope surface. Experiments are carried out on a rock cut along the Konya-Antalya (Turkey) highway, which is composed of limestone, to demonstrate the performance and results of the approach. The locations of the possible failure zones in the critical range of the interior friction angle are defined both visually and numerically along the slope. Experiments show that the proposed method is very useful and easy to implement and yields practical preliminary evaluation results pertaining to instabilities according to the basic failure modes.Sat, 23 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +0100Comparison of various knowledge-driven and logistic-based mineral prospectivity methods to ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_983_111.html
Motivated by the recent successful results of using GIS modeling in a variety of problems related to the geosciences, some knowledge-based methods were applied to a regional scale mapping of the mineral potential, special for Cu-Au mineralization in the Feyz-Abad area located in the NE of Iran. Mineral Prospectivity Mapping (MPM) is a multi-step process that ranks a promising target area for more exploration. In this work, five integration methods were compared consisting of fuzzy, continuous fuzzy, index overlay, AHP, and fuzzy AHP. For this purpose, geological maps, geochemical samples, and geophysics data were collected, and a spatial database was constructed. ETM + images were used to extract the hydroxyl and iron-oxide alterations, and to identify the linear and fault structures and prospective zones in regional scale; ASTER images were used to extract SiO2 index, kaolinite, chlorite, and propylitic alterations in a district scale. All the geological, geochemical, and geophysical data was integrated for MPM by different analysis. The values were determined by expert knowledge or logistic functions. Based upon this analysis, three main exploration targets were recognized in the Feyz-Abad district. Based on field observation, MPM was proved to be valid. The prediction result is accurate, and can provide directions for future prospecting. Among all the methods evaluated in this work, which tend to generate relatively similar results, the continuous fuzzy model seems to be the best fit in the studied area because it is bias-free and can be used to generate reliable target areas.Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +0100An innovative application of (NiXZnX–X Fe2O4) Mineral nanoparticles for adsorption of ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1035_0.html
In this research work, the Ni-Zn Ferrite Mineral Nanoparticles (NZFMN), as a novel nanoadsorbent, was used for the removal of the Green Malachite (GM) dye from aqueous solutions by in a batch and fixed bed column. Firstly, the NZFMN adsorption properties were investigated. The effects of the process parameters including the contact time, adsorbent dosage, solution pH, and GM initial concentration were also studied. Thence, GM was quantitatively evaluated using the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms and the pseudo-first- and second-order models. The adsorption data for the adsorption equilibrium was found to be described well using the Freundlich isotherm model. The results obtained for the AFM and SEM analyses showed that the particle size was less than 100 nm. Also the BET analysis showed that the surface area for NZFMN was 120 . The results obtained also showed that the adsorption capacity and removal percentage of GM on NZFMN from wastewater was about 90%. Consequently, NZFMN was found to be a good adsorbent for wastewater purification.Tue, 10 Oct 2017 20:30:00 +0100Effect of temperature as well as heating and cooling cycles on rock properties
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_971_111.html
Temperature has a significant role in many actions performed on rocks. An example would be the effect of temperature on rocks in the burial of nuclear waste, geothermal energy extraction, deep oil well drilling, and fires in tunnels. In addition, due to diurnal/nocturnal as well as seasonal temperature variations, rocks undergo a process of heating and cooling. In the present work, the effect of temperature as well as heating and cooling cycles on the rock properties was studied. The utilized samples included tuff, andesite, and sandstone. In addition to natural samples, concrete was also studied in this research work. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of temperature on the tensile strength of rocks and the velocity of longitudinal waves in a single heating and cooling cycle of samples as well as evaluating the effect of the number of heating and cooling cycles on the tensile strength of rocks and the velocity of longitudinal waves. In order to investigate the effect of temperature on the tensile strength of rocks as well as the velocity of longitudinal waves in a single heating and cooling cycle, the samples were heated in a furnace. After cooling the samples, the Brazilian and the sound velocity tests were carried out on them. These tests were conducted at the three temperatures of 100, 200, and 300 °C. In order to examine the effect of the number of heating and cooling cycles on the tensile strength and the velocity of longitudinal waves, the samples were heated up to the temperature of 100 °C and then cooled down in order to reach the room temperature. In this case, the work was conducted in the three modes of 5, 10, and 15 cycles. The test results showed that the velocity of longitudinal waves and the tensile strength of samples decreased but their porosity increased. Reduction in the tensile strength varied in different rocks so that the greatest and lowest reduction in the tensile strength was observed in concrete and andesite, respectively.Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +0100Studying effects of ion exchange resin structure and functional groups on Re(VII) adsorption ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1036_0.html
The effects of the functional groups and structures of two different resins, weak base/macroporous and strong base/gel type, Purolite A170 and Dowex 21K on the adsorption properties of Re(VII) ions were investigated experimentally and described by the isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic modeling. In this regard, four widely used adsorption isotherm models including Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) were subjected to the sorption data in order to describe the reactions involved. Evaluating the correlation coefficients showed that the Freundlich and D-R isotherm models provided the best fit. The Langmuir isotherm capacities (qm) indicated that the perrhenate ion (ReO4-) adsorption was higher for the weak base/macroporous type resin rather than the others (166.67 mg/g and 142.86 mg/g, respectively). Moreover, the results of the EDX studies were in agreement with the previous results. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetics was demonstrated through fitting the data into different mechanisms, among which the pseudo-second-order mechanism was found to be successful for both resins; however, in the case of Dowex 21K, the rate of perrhenate ion uptake was more rapid than that for Purolite A170. Evaluation of the thermodynamic parameters also showed that the reaction mechanism was different for each case and that the adsorption of rhenium on Dowex 21K became more feasible with increase in temperature due to negative values for ΔH.Tue, 10 Oct 2017 20:30:00 +0100Influence of modeling material on undercut slope failure mechanism
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_973_111.html
A series of physical modeling tests were conducted by means of a beam type geotechnical centrifuge machine in order to investigate the drainage impact on the slope failure mechanism under centrifugal acceleration. Meanwhile, the phenomenon of stress redistribution in undercut slopes and the formation of arching effect were studied. For this purpose, a poorly graded sandy soil (Silica sand No. 6) as well as a relatively well-graded sandy soil (Edosaki sand) were used as the modeling materials. The humid modeling material was compacted on a low friction oblique rigid plate simulating the potential slippage plane. The process of undercutting was conducted, while the earth pressure redistribution inside the model was recorded by means of a miniature set of pressure cells. The results obtained showed completely different failure mechanisms for the two different modeling soils. By undercutting the slope, the earth pressure redistributed and the arch action was formed in a slope model made from a well-graded soil leading to a clear arch-shaped failure. However, in using the poorly graded soil, the water was drained out during centrifuge g-up, the modeling material properties changed, and an avalanche failure was observed. Therefore, in selecting a humid compacted soil as the centrifugal modeling material, a well-graded soil is recommended.Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +0100Hydrothermal alterations mapping using quickbird and landsat-8 data, a case study from ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1038_0.html
In this work, we focus on investigating the Quickbird and Landsat-8 datasets for mapping hydrothermal and gossans alterations in reconnaissance porphyry copper mineralization in the Babbiduyeh area. This area is situated in the Central Iranian Volcano-sedimentary Complex, where large copper deposits like Sarcheshmeh as well as numerous occurrences of copper exist. The alteration zones are discriminated by implementation of band ratio and principal component analysis on the Quickbird and Landsat-8 datasets. The image processing results are evaluated by field surveys, X-ray diffraction (XRD), microscopic thin section, and spectroscopic studies of field samples as well as the 1:100000 Sarduiyeh and 1:5000 Babbiduyeh geological maps. In addition, the spectral characterizations of the samples are analyzed by visual inspection, and the PIMAView, SAMS, and ViewSpecpro software programs. The combined spectroscopic measurements, XRD analyses, and petrographic studies revealed mineral assemblages typical of the phyllic, phyllic-supergen, propylitic, argillic, and gossan alterations. The results obtained from image processing and analysis of field samples illustrated examples of effects of iron oxides and hydroxides on the surface of phyllic and argillic alterations. Hence, it can be concluded that the areas discriminated in Quickbird as gossans correspond to the phyllic and argillic alteration areas.Mon, 16 Oct 2017 20:30:00 +0100Development of a site-specific regression model for assessment of road-header cutting ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_955_111.html
In underground excavation, where the road-headers are employed, a precise prediction of the road-header performance has a vital role in the economy of the project. In this paper, a new model is developed for prediction of the road-header performance using the non-linear multivariate regression analysis. This model is able to estimate the instantaneous cutting rate (ICR) of roadheader based on rock properties such as Brazilian tensile strength (BTS), rock mass cuttability index (RMCI), and alpha angle (α: is the angle between the tunnel axis and the planes of weakness). In order to construct and test the proposed model, a database including 62 cutting cases is used in the Tabas coal mine No. 1 in Iran. Various statistical performance indices were employed to evaluate the model efficiency. The results obtained indicate that the proposed non-linear regression model can be efficiently used to predict the road-header cutting performance. Furthermore, the prediction capacity of this model is better than the empirical models developed previously. Finally, it should be noted that the developed model is site-speciﬁc, and it can be used for preliminary estimation of ICR in future phases of Tabas coal mine No. 1. The outcome of this model can be helpful in adjustment of time-scheduling of the project.Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +0100UPL determination of multi-element deposits with grade uncertainty using a new block economic ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1041_0.html
The block economic value (BEV) of a single-metal deposit is calculated based on the metal content and the related costs. The common methods available for calculating BEV are just based upon the profitable elements, and the effects of undesirable elements on BEV are not considered. However, in multi-element deposits, the effects of other elements existing in the blocks on BEV should be considered with the purpose of optimizing the blending. These elements and blending methods have considerable effects on the quality of the final product. In this paper, a new approach is introduced to determine BEV in multi-element deposit with two types of profitable and penalty elements by considering the effect of blending on BEV. Consequently, the ultimate pit limits (UPLs) will be determined based on these conditions. The developed model is tested in the Gol-e-Gohar No.2 iron-ore mine, and the mine UPLs is determined. The results obtained showed that the mineable reserve of the pit increased by 3% when the effects of both types of elements are considered. In order to investigate the effect of grade uncertainty on BEV, twenty realizations of the ore block are generated using the sequential Gaussian simulation approach. The UPLs of all the realizations are determined using the developed BEV-calculation method, and the pit limits with different probabilities of occurrence are determined. The total mineable reserve varied between 20,380 and 46,410 million tons. The exploitation of mine should start with the smallest pit (100% probability). The largest pit should be considered as a guide for surface-facility locating.Tue, 17 Oct 2017 20:30:00 +0100Application of continuous restricted Boltzmann machine to detect multivariate anomalies from ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_966_111.html
Anomaly separation using stream sediment geochemical data has an essential role in regional exploration. Many different techniques have been proposed to distinguish anomalous from study area. In this research, a continuous restricted Boltzmann machine (CRBM), which is a generative stochastic artificial neural network, was used to recognize the mineral potential area in Korit 1:100000 sheet, located 15 km south of Tabas, South Khorasan Province (East of Iran). For this purpose, 470 geochemical stream sediment samples were collected from the study area and analyzed for 36 elements. In order to achieve the goal, in the first step, the robust factor analysis on compositional data was applied to reduce the data dimension and to limit the multivariate analysis by selecting the main components of mineralization. In this procedure, the third factor (out of 6) consisting of Cu, Pb, Zn, Sn, and Sb, related to the metallogenic properties, was considered as the input set in CRBM. In continuation, the CRBM structure with the best efficiency after trying different parameters was stabilized. High-identified error values or anomalies were exteracted using two different thresholds (ASC and ASE) after training with the whole data and reconstructing it by CRBM. The anomalies were then mapped. These indicated the promissing areas. The field studies and existing mining indices confirmly demonestrated the results obtained by CRBM.Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +0100Application of alteration index and zoning for Pb-Znexploration in Haft-Savaran area, Khomein, Iran
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1046_0.html
The Haft-Savaran Pb-Zn mineralization zone with the lower Jurassic age is located in the southern basin of Arak and Malayer-Isfahan metallogenic belt of Iran. Based upon the geological map of the Haft-Savaran area, the sandstone and shale of lower Jurassic are the main rocks of Pb-Zn deposit. In this area, 170samples were taken from 33 boreholes, and44 elements were measured by the ICP-MS method. Adaptation of the alteration index and Pb–Zn mineralization was investigated in this work. The model was created based on the Sericitic, Spitz-Darling, Alkali, Hashimoto, and Silicification Indices in all boreholes. This work showed that the Sericite, Hashimoto, Spitz-Darling, and Silicification indices increased around mineralization, and the alkali index decreased around it. Development of the alteration indices indicates that direction of the ore-bearing solution is NE-SW, and that this trend is consistent with the faults in the area. Based upon the 3D models and other data interpretations, Pb–Zn and elements such as Fe, Mn, Cr, and Ni have deposited within the alteration zones.Sun, 29 Oct 2017 20:30:00 +0100Evolution of AG mill shell liner design at Gol-E-Gohar concentration plant
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_954_111.html
Liner design is becoming an increasingly more important tool for the AG/SAG mill performance optimization. The Gol-E-Gohar iron ore concentration plant uses three 9 m × 2.05 m autogenous mills (AG) in parallel in a dry operation. Due to large variations in feed characteristics and inadequate blending, the performance of AG mills has been lower than the target value. In order to increase the circuit throughput while maintaining the desired product size, based upon physical and numerical simulations, it was proposed to convert the AG mills to SAG mills. Simulation of the charge trajectory indicated that increasing the liner lifter face angle from 7 to 30° could provide an appropriate charge trajectory in the SAG mode. Installation of the new liners and conversion of AG mill No. 2 to SAG mill, by adding 5% (v/v) balls, resulted in an overall increase of 31% in throughput (from 419 to 548 t/h). Measurement of the wear profiles of shell liners indicated that the wear along the liner length was not uniform. In order to arrive at a uniform wear profile, a new liner design was proposed. Installing the second liner design in AG mill No. 1 and converting it to SAG mill increased the mill throughput by 18% (from 413 to 489 t/h), while the liner life showed a 7% increase. Measurement of the wear profiles of the second liner set indicate that the maximum wear occurs in the centre of the mill. A new liner design was then designed by increasing the width of the lifter top from 12.5 to 15 cm and increasing the lifter height from 16 to 26 cm to enhance the liner life.Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +0100Effect of thermal treatment on specific rate of breakage of manganese ore
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1047_0.html
The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of thermal treatment on the grinding behavior of manganese ore in the various size fractions of -1.7+1.18, -1.18+0.6, -0.6+0.3 and -0.3+ 0.15 mm. Breakage Function Determination Software (BFDS) is used to calculate the selection function of the experiment. The results of SEM analysis show the micro-cracks in the thermally treated manganese sample, and DTA/TG analysis show that heating at 750 °C leads to dehydroxylation of montmorillonite, and decomposition of calcite and decomposition of montmorillonite to silicate minerals occur at 850 °C. Montmorillonite mineral with a hardness of 2 is turned into silicate minerals with an average hardness of 7. Therefore, it can be seen that the thermal treatment leads to a decrease in the specific rate of breakage from 1.04 min-1 to 0.65 min-1 (approximately to 37%) for a size fraction of -0.300+ 0.15 mm. It; can be expressed that the thermally treated sample is broken more slowly than the untreated sample. Also, parameter “A” is the maximum Si value, decreasing for the heated sample from 4.36 min-1 to 4.28 min-1. The selection function results show that all size fractions of this material follow a first-order kinetics.Sun, 29 Oct 2017 20:30:00 +0100Determination of constant coefficients of Bourgoyne and Young drilling rate model using a novel ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_842_111.html
Achieving minimum cost and time in reservoir drilling requires evaluating the effects of the drilling parameters on the penetration rate and constructing a drilling rate estimator model. Several drilling rate models have been presented using the drilling parameters. Among these, the Bourgoyne and Young (BY) model is widely utilized in order to estimate the penetration rate. This model relates several drilling parameters to the penetration rate. It possesses eight unknown constants. Bourgoyne and Young have suggested the multiple regression analysis method in order to define these constants. Using multiple regressions leads to physically meaningless and out of range constants. In this work, the Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm (COA) is utilized to determine the BY model coefficients. To achieve this goal, the corresponding data for two wells are collected from one of the oilfields located in SW of Iran. The BY model constants are determined individually for two formations in one of the wells. Then the determined constants are used to estimate the drilling rate of penetration in the other well having the same formations. To compare the results obtained for COA, first, the two mathematical methods including progressive stochastic and multiple regressions were implemented. Comparison between these methods indicated that COA yields more accurate and reliable results with respect to the others. In the following, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) as meta-heuristic algorithms were applied on the field data in order to determine BY model’s coefficients. Comparison between these methods showed that the COA has fast convergence rate and estimation error less than others.Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +0100Exploration of Kahang porphyry copper deposit using advanced integration of geological, remote ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1051_0.html
The purpose of mineral exploration is to find ore deposits. The main aim of this work is to use the fuzzy inference system to integrate the exploration layers including the geological, remote sensing, geochemical, and magnetic data. The studied area was the porphyry copper deposit of the Kahang area in the preliminary stage of exploration. Overlaying of rock units and tectonic layers were used to prepare the geological layer. ASTER images were used for the purpose of recognition of the alterations. The processes used for preparation of the alteration layer were the image-based methods including RGB, band ratio, and principal component analysis as well as the spectrum-based methods including spectral angel mapper and spectral feature fitting. In order to prepare the geochemical layer, the multivariate statistical methods such as the Pearson correlation matrix and cluster analysis were applied on the data, which showed that both copper and molybdenum were the most effective elements of mineralization. Application of the concentration-number multi-fractal modeling was used for geochemical anomaly separation, and finally, the geochemical layer was obtained by the overlaying of two prepared layers of copper and molybdenum. In order to prepare the magnetics layer, the analytical signal map of the magnetometry data was selected. Finally, the FIS integration was applied on the layers. Ultimately, the mineral potential map was obtained and compared with the 33 drilled boreholes in the studied area. The accuracy of the model was validated upon achieving the 70.6% agreement percentage between the model results and true data from the boreholes, and consequently, the appropriate areas were suggested for the subsequent drilling.Tue, 07 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +0100New empirical failure criterion for shale
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1052_0.html
A new failure criterion was presented to predict the ultimate strength of shale under the triaxial and polyaxial state of stress. A database containing 93 datasets was obtained from the results of the uniaxial, triaxial, polyaxial compressive tests, an indirect tensile test was collected from reliable references, and this test was carried out on the shale samples taken from the southwestern oilfields in Iran. The database was used to evaluate the proposed criterion, and its accuracy was compared against the popular failure criteria in rock mechanics, particularly those used for stability analysis such as the Hoek-Brown, Mohr-Coulomb, Drucker-Prager, and Mogi-Coulomb failure criteria. In order to evaluate the model, seven important statistical indices were selected. Subsequently, curves from various failure criteria were fitted to the triaxial and polyaxial data, and the corresponding coefficients and statistical indices were determined. The results obtained indicated that, in all cases, compared to the other failure criteria, the proposed criterion succeeded to predict the ultimate strength at a higher accuracy. Also the proposed criterion was used calculate the uniaxial compressive and tensile strengths with a minimum error. For a further examination of the proposed criterion, a series of results from the triaxial test including the ductile failure data were utilized for evaluation of the applicability of the proposed criterion to the ductile zone. It showed that the criterion could predict the ultimate strength of shale over a wide range of stresses.Tue, 07 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +0100Multivariate geostatistical estimation using minimum spatial cross-correlation factors (Case ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1060_0.html
The quality properties of andesite (Unit Volume Weight, Uniaxial Compression Strength, Los500, etc.) are required to determine the exploitable blocks and their sequence of extraction. However, the number of samples that can be taken and analyzed is restricted, and thus the quality properties should be estimated at unknown locations. Cokriging has been traditionally used in the estimation of spatially cross-correlated variables. However, it can face unsolvable matrices in its algorithm. An alternative to cokriging is to transform variables into spatially orthogonal factors, and then to apply kriging to them. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is one of the methods that can be used to generate these factors. However, ICA is applicable to zero lag distance so that using methods with distance parameter in their algorithms would be advantageous. In this work, Minimum Spatial Cross-correlation (MSC) was applied to six mechanical properties of Cubuk andesite quarry located in Ankara, Turkey, in order to transform them into approximately orthogonal factors at several lag distances. The factors were estimated at 1544 (5 m × 5 m) regular grid points using the kriging method, and the results were back-transformed into the original data space. The efficiency of the MSC-kriging was compared with Independent Component kriging (IC-kriging) and cokriging through cross-validation test. All methods were unbiased but the MSC-kriging outperformed the IC-kriging and cokriging because of having the lowest mean errors and the highest correlation coefficients between the estimated and the observed values. The estimation results were used to determine the most profitable blocks and the optimum direction of extraction.Mon, 13 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +0100Spatial modelling of zonality elements based on compositional nature of geochemical data using ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1056_0.html
Due to the existence of a constant sum of constraints, the geochemical data is presented as the compositional data that has a closed number system. A closed number system is a dataset that includes several variables. The summation value of variables is constant, being equal to one. By calculating the correlation coefficient of a closed number system and comparing it with an open number system, one can see an increase in the values of the closed number system, which is false. Such features of this data prevent the application of standard statistical techniques to process the data. Therefore, several methods have been proposed for transforming the data from closed to open number systems. There are various geostatistical methods consisting of estimation and simulation methods in order to model a deposit. Geostatistical simulations can produce various models for a deposit with different probability percentages. The most applicable geostatistical simulation method is the sequential Gaussian simulation technique, which is highly flexible. In this work, 392 Litho-geochemical data of the Baghqloom region of Kerman in Iran consisting of 20 elements were at first converted using an open number system. Afterwards, the elements that were helpful for exploring the area and were normally standard were simulated for 100 times. After the simulations, the valid output was chosen using geostatistical validation. The maps derived from the simulations revealed the enriched concentrations of mineralization elements in the central regions.Sat, 11 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +0100XRF analysis of coal bioleaching by chemolithoheterotrophic Alicyclobacillus HRM5 and ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1066_0.html
Most studies on sulfur bioleaching from coal depend on an autotrophic microorganism with a low growth and a long leaching time. For this reason, heterotrophic heat and acidic pH-resistant Alicyclobacillus was used as the growing and resting cells for the sulfur and iron removal from coal. The results obtained were analyzed by XRF. The data showed that 26.71% of sulfur was removed by Alicyclobacillus in a few days; however, 49.07% of sulfur was removed by Acidithiobacillus in 30 days. This was interesting since the leachings of zinc, strontium, titanium, and iron by Alicyclobacillus, obtained in a few days, were almost the same as the leachings by Acidithiobacillus in 30 days. The results obtained also showed that the Alicyclobacillus cells growing at 55 ˚C removed most of the coal impurities without any change in the carbon content of this fuel. To the best of our knowledge, coal leaching by Alicyclobacillus is reported for the first time.Sun, 19 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +0100Investigation of effect of sulfate ion on xanthate consumption in galena flotation based on ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1068_0.html
Flotation is a common process in sulfide ore beneficiation. Due to the restrictions and lack of access to high-quality water sources for industrial purposes, recycled water plays an important role in the flotation processes. Due to the existence of various organic and inorganic substances in the process, water influences the flotation performance. In this work, the effect of accumulation of sulfate ion in processed water on galena flotation was investigated. Flotation experiments using processed water without sulfate ion led to a concentrate containing 40.7% of lead and a maximum recovery of 58.9%. The presence of higher sulfate ion levels (2000 M) in processed water caused a significant decrease in the grade and recovery of the lead concentrate. With 2000 mg/L of sulfate ion, the grade and recovery of lead decreased from 40.7 to 24.3% and from 58.9 to 32.1 %, respectively. Thermodynamic calculations showed that when the sulfate ion concentration was increased from 300 to 2000 ppm, it was more likely that lead sulfate (solid) was formed. With increase in the xanthate ion concentration from 10-6 to 10-4 M, could be substituted by . On the basis of the results obtained, it was concluded that in order to reduce the negative effects of sulfate ion accumulation in water and increase the efficiency of the galena flotation process, higher dosages of xanthates should be added to the system.Tue, 21 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +0100Effect of frother type and operational parameters on nano bubble flotation of quartz coarse ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1074_0.html
In this work, the effects of the types of frother (MIBC, pine oil, and A65) and operational parameters (impeller speed and air flow rate) on the flotation of quartz coarse particles was investigated using nano bubbles (NBs). Quartz particles of the size of -425+106 mm and three types of frother were used for the flotation experiments. Also the impeller speed was 600 to 1300 rpm, and the air flow rates were 30 and 60 L/h. In the absence of NBs, the maximum recovery was achieved with the pine oil frother, an impeller speed of 1000 rpm, and an air flow rate of 60 L/h. In the presence of NBs, the maximum recovery was achieved using pine oil at an impeller speed of 900 rpm and an air flow rate of 30 L/h. However, increasing the recovery in the presence of NBs, compared to the absence of NBs for MIBC, was more than the other two frothers, and the recovery using this frother to increase up to 25% but using pine oil, the recovery increased up to 23%. The lowest recovery in the presence of NBs was obtained using A65. Also the use of NBs increased recovery in all the three fractions compared to the absence of NBs but the presence of NBs increased the recovery of particles with size of -212+106 mm more than the particle size in the ranges of -300+212 and -425+300 mm.Wed, 29 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +0100Forecasting copper price using gene expression programming
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1075_0.html
Forecasting the prices of metals is important in many aspects of economics. Metal prices are also vital variables in financial models for revenue evaluation, which forms the basis of an effective payment regime using resource policymakers. According to the severe changes of the metal prices in the recent years, the classic estimation methods cannot correctly estimate the volatility. In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to use the artificial algorithms, which have a good ability to predict the volatility of various phenomena. In the present work, the gene expression programming (GEP) method was used to predict the copper price volatility. In order to understand the ability of this method, the results obtained were compared with the other classical prediction methods. The results indicated that the GEP method was much better than the time series and multivariate regression methods in terms of the prediction accuracy.Fri, 01 Dec 2017 20:30:00 +0100Simulation of the Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) Utilization: a case study.
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1076_0.html
Utilization is one of the main managerial factors which is applied for construction process analysis well. It affects the project duration and construction costs directly. Therefore, a utilization study in tunneling projects is essential. In this paper, the utilization of an Erath Pressure Balance Tunnel Boring machine in Tabriz urban railway project has been studied using Monte Carlo simulation approach. For this purpose, the unit operation during one working shift such as boring time, ring building time and locomotive travel time have been recorded and saved in data base. In addition, the general down times such as TBM and backup system maintenance, surface and tunnel logistic, maintenance, cutting tools’ replacement and locomotive delay times have been recorded and considered in simulation. The results of this study show that the mean simulated project duration time of case study TBM is approximately 859 shifts and close to the real data with a difference of 0.92 percent. Finally, the average estimated utilization factor is approximately 14 %.Tue, 05 Dec 2017 20:30:00 +0100Numerical Modeling of Hydraulic Fracturing in Carbonate Rocks of Bangestan Reservoir
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1077_0.html
Hydraulic fracturing is used in the oil industry in order to increase the index of production and processing in wells whose efficiency has been dropped due to long-term harvest or the rocks around the well are low permeable. Since the hydraulic fracturing operation is costly, it is of special importance to determine the pressure required for hydraulic fracturing and the suitable pump for this operation to the project managers. These modellings are aimed to investigate the fracture pressure in this reservoir and determining a relationship between the pressure needed for fracturing and the confining pressure. In this study, unlike the other studies in this field, the developed numerical models had no initial crack or fracture, and the path of the crack and how the crack grows were studied without any pre-determination and presumption. The results showed that, in most cases, crack starts from the central part of the sample and is extended to its two ends. Crack extension direction was along the borehole axis inside the sample and perpendicular to the lateral stress. The numerical modeling results were well consistent with experimental modeling results, indicating that the pump capacity constraints in the laboratory can be overcome through numerical modeling.Wed, 06 Dec 2017 20:30:00 +0100A quantitative model for evaluation and classification of blastings in open-pit mines
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_662_0.html
By evaluation of the blasting results, a proper blast pattern can be presented. It is, therefore, essential to employ a reliable method to evaluate blastings for the effective control and optimization of the main cycle operations. This paper aims to propose a criterion for evaluating the blasting results such as the fragmentation, muckpile condition, back-break, and fly rock, and to make a possible comparison between the blast parameters including the blasting pattern, explosives used, hole depths, and volume of the blasted rocks in the lead and zinc mine in Angouran (Iran). Using the global criterion, making the decision matrix dimensionless, and defining the appropriate conditions for the results obtained, a scalar value is devoted for the blasts, whose larger values denote a larger deviation from the proper blasting conditions and express undesirable blasts regarding the blasting results. By taking into consideration the mining operation conditions and weights of the results obtained, the influence of the results obtained on the mining operation index is also investigated using the genetic algorithm. Furthermore, by composing the weighted decision matrix, the blastings are evaluated and classified. Analyzing the results obtained for blastings in the Angouran mine reveals that the proposed method is an effective approach for evaluation of the blasting results and comparison of the blasts.Wed, 17 Aug 2016 19:30:00 +0100Application of harmony search algorithm to evaluate performance of diamond wire saw
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_723_0.html
Evaluation and prediction of performance of diamond wire saw is one of the most important factors involved in planning the dimension stone quarries. The wear rate of diamond wire saw can be investigated as a major criterion to evaluate its performance. The wear rate of diamond wire saw depends upon non-controlled parameters related to rock characteristics and controlled parameters related to characteristics of the cutting machine and operational parameters. Under the same working conditions, the wear rate of diamond wire saw is strongly affected by the rock properties. This is a key factor that required in evaluating the wear rate of diamond wire saw. In this work, the four major dimension stone properties uniaxial compressive strength, Schimazek F-abrasivity factor, Shore hardness, and Young's modulus were selected as the criteria to evaluate the wear rate of diamond wire saw using the harmony search algorithm (HSA). HSA was used to cluster the fifteen different andesite quarries located in Turkey. The studied dimension stones were classified into three classes. The results obtained show that the algorithm applied can be used to classify the performance of diamond wire saw according to its wear rate by only some famous physical and mechanical properties of dimension stone.Sat, 24 Sep 2016 20:30:00 +0100Evaluation of effective factors in window optimization of fry analysis to identify ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_909_0.html
The known ore deposits and mineralization trends are important key exploration criteria in mineral exploration within a specific region. Fry analysis has conventionally been considered as a suitable method to determine the mineralization trends related to linear structures. Based upon literature sources, to date, no investigation has been carried out that includes the Sensitivity Analysis of Feature's Number (SAFN), Sensitivity Analysis of Window Size (SAWS), and Sensitivity Analysis of Spatial Distribution (SASD) of Fry analysis related to mineral locations. In this work, SAFN, SAWS, and SASD are performed by moving several different sub-windows among the main window in order to identify the main trends of mineralization by Fry analysis in the Bavanat region of Iran, which is qualified by its regional and local faults pattern. Based upon our investigation, the effectiveness of the window size and the number of features on Fry analysis are 15-30%. The determined main trends of sub-windows increase, whereas its distribution function of Fry outputs is more similar to the distribution function of Fry outputs of the main window. Moreover, the directions of rose diagrams could be changed due to the edge effects of marginal features around the selected window. However, by selecting an appropriate window, this problem can be solved. Additionally, by an appropriate window selection, the most suitable regional situation is an area that contains the largest number of deposits with a similar metallogenetic origin. Based upon our investigation, the distribution function of the Fry outputs is the main factor that directly controls the identified mineralization pattern of the selected windows.Fri, 28 Apr 2017 19:30:00 +0100Application of concentration gradient coefficients in mining geochemistry: A comparison of ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_919_0.html
In this work, the concentration gradient (CG) analysis of local-scale exploration for Porphyry-Cu deposits is applied in two zones using the G(Vz) index (CG(Zn*Pb)/CG(Cu*Mo)). The first zone is covered by a 1:2000 map of the Sungun and Astamal areas in NW Iran and the second one in the Inza area in British Columbia, Canada. The rock samples are taken from Sungun and Astamal and the soil samples are taken from Inza. The Inza samples are analyzed for Cu, Pb, Zn, and Mo elements by the atomic absorption method, while the rock samples of Astamal and Sungun are analyzed for Cu, Pb, Zn, Mo, Ag, As, and Sb elements. The indices of gradient geochemical zonality (G(Vz)) of multi-elements around the mineral deposits and their spatial associations with particular geological, geochemical, and structural factors are the critical aspects that must be considered in mineral exploration. The values for the G(Vz) indices allow a distinction between the sub-ore and supra-ore anomalies, which are associated with Zone Dispersed Mineralization (ZDM) and Blind Mineralization (BM), respectively. For a comparative identification of BM and ZDM, a supra-ore (Pb*Zn) anomaly, a sub-ore (Cu*Mo) anomaly, and Vz maps are used in place of the mining geochemistry representing the supra-ore gradient anomaly, sub-ore gradient anomaly and G(Vz) map. The G(Vz) model outperforms the Vz model. The introduced technique allows for a computational distinction between the BM and ZDM ore mineralizations without exploration drilling. Prior to writing this paper, the blind porphyry-Cu mineralization was intersected at depth through borehole exploration in a highly prospective zone delineated by the G(Vz) model. The results obtained confirm the usefulness of the G(Vz) modeling for local-scale targeting of blind mineral deposits.Wed, 10 May 2017 19:30:00 +0100Structural analysis of impacting factors of sustainable development in underground coal mining ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_951_0.html
Mining can become more sustainable by developing and integrating economic, environmental, and social components. Among the mining industries, coal mining requires paying a serious attention to the aspects of sustainable development. Therefore, in this work, we investigate the impacting factors involved in the sustainable development of underground coal mining from the structural viewpoint. For this purpose, the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) technique, which is a graph-based method, is utilized. To do so, at first, twenty effective factors are determined for three components. Then the hierarchical structure and the systematic approach are used to determine the total exerted influence or total received influence of the components. The results obtained show that the environmental and social components are the most important, and the economic components are the least important among them.Mon, 12 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +0100Combining fuzzy RES with GA for predicting wear performance of circular diamond saw in hard ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_986_0.html
Predicting the wear performance of circular diamond saw in the process of sawing hard dimensional stone is an important step in reducing production costs in the stone sawing industry. In the present research work, the effective parameters on circular diamond saw wear are defined, and then the weight of each parameter is determined through adopting a fuzzy rock engineering system (Fuzzy RES) based on defining an accurate Gaussian pattern in fuzzy logic with analogous weighting. After this step, genetic algorithm (GA) is used to determine the levels of the four major variables and the amounts of the saw wear (output parameter) in the classification operation based on the fixed, dissimilar, and logarithmic spanning methods. Finally, a mathematical relationship is suggested for evaluation of the accuracy of the proposed models. The main contribution of our method is the novelty of combination of these methods in fuzzy RES. Before this work, all Fuzzy RESs only use simple membership functions and uniform spanning. Using GA for spanning and normal distribution as membership function based upon our latest work is the first work in fuzzy RES. To verify the selected proposed model, rock mechanics tests are conducted on nine hard stone samples, and the diamond saw wear is measured and compared with the proposed model. According to the results obtained, the proposed model exhibits acceptable capabilities in predicting the circular diamond saw wear.Mon, 31 Jul 2017 19:30:00 +0100Estimation of geochemical elements using a hybrid neural network-Gustafson-Kessel algorithm
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1053_0.html
Bearing in mind that lack of data is a common problem in the study of porphyry copper mining exploration, our goal was set to identify the hidden patterns within the data and to extend the information to the data-less areas. To do this, the combination of pattern recognition techniques has been used. In this work, multi-layer neural network was used to estimate the concentration of geochemical elements. From 1755 surface and boreholes data available, analyzed by ICP, 70% was used for training, and the rest for testing. The average accuracy of estimators for 22 geochemical elements when using all data was equal to 75%. Based on validation, the optimal number of clusters for the total data was identified. The Gustafson-Kessel (GK) clustering was used to design the estimator for the geochemical element concentrations in different clusters, and the clusters were selected for estimation. The results obtained show that using GK, the estimator's average accuracy increase up to 84%. The accuracy of the elementsZn, As, Pb, Mo, and Mn with low accuracies of 0.51, 0.62, 0.64, 0.65, and 0.68 based on all data were developed to 0.76, 0.86, 0.76, 0.80, and 0.71 with the clustered data, respectively. The mean square error using all the data was 0.079, while in the case of hybrid developed method, it decreased to 0.048. There were error reductions in Al from 0.022 to 0.012, in As, from 0.105 to 0.025, and from 0.115 to 0.046 for S.Wed, 08 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +0100