Journal of Mining and EnvironmentJournal of Mining and Environment
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Feed provided by Journal of Mining and Environment. Click to visit.Blast Design for Improved Productivity using a Modified Available Energy Method
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1778_195.html
In this work, a new drilling and blasting design methodology is introduced and applied at a case study mine to improve productivity. For the case study copper mine, a blast diameter of 203 mm is proposed to be used in the ore zone to meet the new required production rate of 90mtpa from 75mtpa. Currently, the Konya and Walter’s model is used to generate drilling and blasting design at a blasthole diameter of 172 mm. The new drilling and blast design approach is advantageous in the sense that it generates a lower specific drilling value and predicts an average fragment size compared with the current method being used. In this regard, a modified available energy blast design method that incorporates the blastability index of ore zone in the calculation of the input powder factor is introduced. The results of the blast design simulations at a 203 mm blasthole diameter shows that the modified available energy model generates a drilling and blasting design with a specific drilling value that is 15.3% less than that generated by the Ash’s and Konya and Walter’s models. Further, the modified available energy model generates a blast design with a predicted average fragment size that is 3.4% smaller than that generated by the Ash’s model, and 6.7% smaller than that generated by the Konya and Walter’s model.Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100A Preliminary Assessment of Rock Slope Stability in Tropical Climates: A Case Study at Lafarge ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1850_195.html
The stability analysis of rock slopes is a complex task for the geotechnical engineers due to the complex nature of the rock mass in a tropical climate that often has discontinuities in several forms, and consequently, in several types of slope failures. In this work, a rock mass classification scheme is followed in a tropical environment using the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) and Geological Strength Index (GSI) combined with the kinematic investigation using the Rocscience Software Dips 6.0. The Lafarge quarry is divided into ten windows. In the RMR system, the five parameters uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), rock quality designation (RQD), discontinuity spacing, discontinuity condition, and groundwater conditions are investigated. The RMR values range from 51 to 70 (fair to good rock mass), and the GSI values range from 62 to 65 (good to fair rock mass). There is a good and positive correlation between RMR and GSI. The kinematic analysis reveals that window A is prone to critical toppling, window H to critical wedge-planar failure, and window G to critical wedge failure. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the kinematic analysis combined with the rock mass classification system provides a better understanding to analyze the rock slope stability in a tropical climate compared with considering the rock mass classification system individually.Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100Investigation of Effect of Number of Lifters on Performance of Pilot-Scale SAG Mills Using ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1688_195.html
The number of lifters of mill shell liners, mill rotation speed, and filling percentage of grinding media are three of the most important parameters influencing the charge behavior and the trajectory of ball motion inside the SAG mills, and consequently, their performance. In this paper, the milling operation of pilot-scale SAG mills using the discrete element method (DEM) is investigated. First, a pilot-scale SAG mill with dimensions of 3.0 m × 1.5 m with no lifter is simulated. Then by adding, respectively, one, two, four, eight, sixteen, and thirty-two rectangle lifter(s), six other independent simulations are performed. The effects of the number of lifters on the two new parameters introduced by the authors, i.e. ‘head height’ and ‘impact zone length’ as well as on creation of cascading, cataracting, and centrifuging motions for balls at two different mill speeds, i.e. 70% and 80% of its critical speed (NC), are evaluated. Also in order to validate the simulation results, a laboratory-scale SAG mill is simulated. The results obtained indicate that the optimum number of lifters for pilot-scale SAG mills is between 16 and 32 lifters with medium thickness. Liners with the number of lifters in this range require less mill speed to create cataract motions. However, liners with the number of lifters less than this range require a higher mill speed. Also liners with the number of lifters beyond this range require less mill speed, and can cause centrifugal motions in the balls. Comparison of the simulations related to the laboratory-scale SAG mill with experimental results demonstrates a good agreement, which validates the DEM simulations and the software used.Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100Application of Sequential Gaussian Conditional Simulation to Underground Mine Design Under ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1540_195.html
In mining projects, all uncertainties associated with a project must be considered to determine the feasibility study. Grade uncertainty is one of the major components of technical uncertainty that affects the variability of the project. Geostatistical simulation, as a reliable approach, is the most widely used method to quantify risk analysis to overcome the drawbacks of the estimation methods used for an entire ore body. In this work, all the algorithms developed by numerous researchers for optimization of the underground stope layout are reviewed. After that, a computer program called stope layout optimizer 3D is developed based on a previously proposed heuristic algorithm in order to incorporate the influence of grade variability in the final stope layout. Utilizing the sequential gaussian conditional simulation, 50 simulations and a kriging model are constructed for an underground copper vein deposit situated in the southwest of Iran, and the final stope layout is carried out separately. It can be observed that geostatistical simulation can effectively cope with the weakness of the kriging model. The final results obtained show that the frequency of economic value for all realizations varies between 6.7 M$ and 30.7 M$. This range of variation helps designers to make a better and lower risk decision under different conditions.Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100On Applicability of Some Indirect Tests for Estimation of Tensile Strength of Anisotropic Rocks
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1696_195.html
The tensile strength of rocks plays a noteworthy role in their failure mechanism, and its determination can be beneficial in optimizing the design of the rock structures. Schistose rocks due to their inherent anisotropy in different foliation directions show a diverse strength at each direction. The purpose of this work was to compare and assess the tensile strength of phyllite, which was obtained in direct and indirect tensile tests in different foliation directions. To this end, several phyllite specimens with different foliation angles (0º, 30º, 45º, 60º, and 90º) related to the loading axis (β) were prepared. Finally, the direct tensile test, diametrical and axial point load tests, Brazilian test, and Schmidt hammer test were conducted on 188 samples. The results of the experimental tests revealed that the maximum and minimum tensile strengths in direct tensile testing tension were directly related to the angles of 0º and 90º. Also it was observed that the Brazilian tensile strength overestimated the tensile strength. Furthermore, an exponential correlation was introduced between the direct tensile strength and the Brazilian tensile strength.Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100A Comprehensive Study of Several Meta-Heuristic Algorithms for Open-Pit Mine Production ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1718_195.html
It is significant to discover a global optimization in the problems dealing with large dimensional scales to increase the quality of decision-making in the mining operation. It has been broadly confirmed that the long-term production scheduling (LTPS) problem performs a main role in mining projects to develop the performance regarding the obtainability of constraints, while maximizing the whole profits of the project in a specific period. There is a requirement for improving the scheduling methodologies to get a good solution since the production scheduling problems are non-deterministic polynomial-time hard. The current paper introduces the hybrid models so as to solve the LTPS problem under the condition of grade uncertainty with the contribution of Lagrangian relaxation (LR), particle swarm optimization (PSO), firefly algorithm (FA), and bat algorithm (BA). In fact, the LTPS problem is solved under the condition of grade uncertainty. It is proposed to use the LR technique on the LTPS problem and develop its performance, speeding up the convergence. Furthermore, PSO, FA, and BA are projected to bring up-to-date the Lagrangian multipliers. The consequences of the case study specifies that the LR method is more influential than the traditional linearization method to clarify the large-scale problem and make an acceptable solution. The results obtained point out that a better presentation is gained by LR–FA in comparison with LR-PSO, LR-BA, LR-Genetic Algorithm (GA), and traditional methods in terms of the summation net present value. Moreover, the CPU time by the LR-FA method is approximately 16.2% upper than the other methods.Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100Dilution risk ranking in underground metal mines using Multi-Attributive Approximation area ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1650_0.html
The contamination of ores with wastes or materials of lower than the cut-off grade is referred to as dilution. Dilution is an undesirable phenomenon that, on one hand, reduces the product grade and, consequently, reduces the sales prices and, on the other hand, adds an extra cost to waste production. Therefore, studying and evaluating the dilution risk is important in mining, and especially in underground mining. In this work, using a powerful decision-making method, i.e. Multi-Attributive Approximation Area Comparison (MABAC), the dilution risk and ranking it in underground mines are assessed. For this purpose, the most important parameters affecting the dilution in 10 mines of the Venarch manganese mines are first identified and then weighed using the Fuzzy Delphi Analytical Hierarchy Analysis (FDAHP) method. Then using the MABAC method, the dilution risk score for each mine is estimated, and subsequently, various mines are ranked as the dilution risk. Then with the implementation of the Cavity Monitoring System (CMS) and measurement of the actual dilution values, the mines are ranked in dilution. The correct matching of the results of these two rankings indicates that the MABAC method is highly effective in the ranking of the risk. At the end, the risk ranking of the mines is done using the TOPSIS method, and the lack of full compliance with the results of this method with the actual values indicates that the MABAC method is preferable to the TOPSIS method.Tue, 24 Dec 2019 20:30:00 +0100Effect of Segmental Joint on Internal Forces in Tunnel Lining under Seismic Loading by ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1751_195.html
Although segmental tunnel linings are often used for seismic areas, the influence of segment joints on the segmental lining behavior under seismic loading has not been thoroughly considered in the literature. This paper presents the results of a numerical study investigating the effects of the rotational, axial, and radial joint stiffness of the longitudinal joints on the structural forces in segmental tunnel lining under seismic loading. A 3D finite element method is adapted to establish elaborate numerical models of the segments. The validity of the numerical model was tested by comparing the results obtained with the well-known analytical methods presented by Wang and Penzien. The results demonstrate that by increasing the rotational stiffness of the segmental joint, the bending moment increases. When the rotational stiffness ratio is less than 0.5, the positive and negative bending moment variations are more. The numerical modeling results show the variations in the bending moment and the difference between the positive and negative bending moment values increased by increasing the acceleration of seismic loading. Moreover, it is significant for the values. By increasing the rotational stiffness ratio of the segmental joint, the axial force ratio decreases. By increasing the axial and shear stiffness ratio of segmental joint, the variations in the bending moment and axial force in segmental lining is not significant and is ignorable in designing segmental lining.Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100Risk assessment of flyrock in surface mines using FFTA-MCDMs combination
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1666_0.html
The drilling and blasting method is the first choice for rock breakage in surface or underground mines due to its high flexibility against variations and low investment costs. However, any method has its own advantages and disadvantages. The flyrock phenomenon is one of the drilling and blasting disadvantages that the mining engineers have always been faced with in the surface mine blasting operations. Flyrock may lead to fatality and destroy mine equipment and structures, and so its risk assessment is very essential. For a flyrock risk assessment, the causing events that lead to flyrock along with their probabilities and severities should be identified. For this aim, a combination of the fuzzy fault tree analysis and multi-criteria decision-making methods are used. Based on the results obtained, the relevant causing events of flyrock in surface mines can be categorized into three major groups: design error, human error, and natural error. Finally, using the obtained probabilities and severities for these three groups, the risk matrix is constructed. Based on the risk matrix, the risk numbers of flyrock occurrence due to the design errors, human errors, and natural influence are 12, 6, and 2, respectively. Hence, in order to minimize the flyrock risk, it is very vital for the engineers to select appropriate values for the design events of blasting pattern such as burden, spacing, delays, and hole diameter.Wed, 22 Jan 2020 20:30:00 +0100Comparison of Copper Dissolution in Chalcopyrite Concentrate Bioleaching with Acidianus ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1756_195.html
Although bioleaching of chalcopyrite by thermophilic microorganisms enhances the rate of copper recovery, a high temperature accelerates iron precipitation as jarosite, which can bring many operational problems in the industrial processes. In this research work, the bioleaching of chalcopyrite concentrate by the thermophilic Acidianus brierleyi was studied, and the microbial growth, copper dissolution, iron oxidation, and jarosite precipitation were monitored in different initial pH (pHi) values. Bacterial growth was greatly affected by pHi. While the bacterial growth was delayed for 11 days with a pHi value of 0.8, this delay was reduced to nearly one day for a pHi value of 1.2. Two stages of copper recovery were observed during all the tests. A high pHi value caused a fast bacterial growth in the first stage and severe jarosite precipitation in the later days causing a sharp decline in the bacterial population and copper leaching rate. The copper recoveries after 11 days were 25%, 78%, 84%, 70%, 56%, and 39% for the pHi values of 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.3, 1.5, and 1.7, respectively. Sulfur and jarosite were the main residues of the bioleaching tests. It was revealed that the drastic effect of jarosite precipitation on the microbial growth and copper recovery was mainly caused by the ferric iron depletion from solution rather than passivation of the chalcopyrite surface. A slow precipitation of crystalline jarosite did not cause a passive chalcopyrite surface. The mechanisms of chalcopyrite bioleaching were discussed.Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100Comparative Analysis of Coal Minerâ€™s Fatalities by Fuzzy Logic
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1774_0.html
In this work, we employ the fuzzy logic technique to achieve and present, for the first time, a proper analysis of the actual intensity of the increase in the coal miners’ fatality rates in Pakistan from 2010 to 2018, compared with China and India, with an objective to minimize the impact of incidents on the miners’ fatalities. The average and yearwise fatality rates in Pakistan, compared with China and India, are used for the fuzzy logic technique in order to calculate the actual degree of flexibility for the surging fatalities. The findings show that both the average (2010-2018) and yearwise fatality rates in 2011, 2015, and 2018 are 2.44, 1.74, and 1.6, respectively. In the fuzzy logic technique, the variables whose membership function (µ) values are ≥ 1 represent the absolute truth. The membership function values for the years 2011, 2015, and 2018 are alarmingly high for the fatalities of coal miners. Similarly, except for 2014 and 2010, where 0 represents the absolute falseness, the results for the remaining years indicate high fatality rates with a flexibility (or small extent) of its corresponding membership function (µ) values such as 0.623, 0.739, 0.219, 0.173 and 0.115, and 0.714, 0.24, 0.01, 0.324 and 0.317 using the average and yearwise analysis, respectively, compared with China. Likewise, the fuzzy logic membership function (µ) values compared with India in the remaining years are 0.704, 0.795, 0.386, 0.159, 0.352 and 0.306, and 0.675, 0.795, 0.386, 0.186, 0.321 and 0.322, respectively. The proposed fuzzy logic analysis has been founded based on the theory of fuzzy sets to properly identify the miners’ fatalities, and also to suggest the implementation of appropriate recommendations to reduce the fatalities in the coal mines in Pakistan.Sat, 23 May 2020 19:30:00 +0100A New Mathematical Model for Production Scheduling in Sub-level Caving Mining Method
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Production scheduling in underground mines is still a manual process, and achieving a truly optimal result through manual scheduling is impossible due to the complexity of the scheduling problems. Among the underground mining methods, sub-level caving is a common mining method with a high production rate for hard rock mining. There are limited studies about long-term production scheduling in the sub-level caving method. In this work, for sub-level caving production scheduling optimization, a new mathematical model with the objective of net present value (NPV) maximization is developed. The general technical and operational constraints of the sub-level caving method such as opening and developments, production capacity, sub-level mining geometry, and ore access are considered in this model. Prior to the application of the scheduling model, the block model is processed to remove the unnecessary blocks. For this purpose, the floating stope algorithm is applied in order to determine the ultimate mine boundary and reduce the number of blocks that consequently reduces the running time of the model. The model is applied to a bauxite mine block model and the maximum NPV is determined, and then the mine development network is designed based on the optimal schedule.Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100A new technical and economic model to calculate specific charge and specific drilling using ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1831_0.html
Calculation of the specific charge and specific drilling before a blasting operation plays a significant role in the design of a blasting pattern and the reduction of the final extraction cost of minerals. In this work, the information from the Sungun, Miduk and Chah-Firouzeh copper mines in Iran was assessed, and it was found that there was a significant relationship between the specific charge and specific drilling and the hole diameter, bench height, uniaxial compressive strength and joint set orientation. After finding a technical and economic model to calculate the specific charge and specific drilling, this model was tested on the Sungun copper mine. Due to the insufficient consideration during the design of a blast pattern and because of the high hardness of the rocks in some parts of the mine, lots of destructive events such as boulders, back break, bench toe, high specific charge and high specific drilling, fly rock, and ground vibration in the blast operations were observed. The specific charge and specific drilling were found to be the most important technical and economic parameters involved in designing a blasting pattern, and they were found to play an important role in reducing the blasting cost. The blasting cost could be largely controlled by the accurate examination and computation of these parameters. An increase in the rock strength and the angle between the bench face and the main joint set would increase the specific charge and specific drilling. On the other hand, a specific charge and a specific drilling would decrease when the hole diameter increased in every range of the uniaxial compressive strength.Mon, 29 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100Dissolution of Nickel and Cobalt from Iron-Rich Laterite Ores Using Different Organic Acids
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1777_195.html
Due to the decreasing production of nickel and cobalt from sulfide sources, the Ni and Co extraction from the oxide ores (laterites) have become more prevalent. In this research work, the effects of calcination prior to leaching, acid concentration, percent solid, pH, and stirring speed on the nickel and cobalt recoveries from an iron-rich laterite ore sample were investigated using different organic acids. Then the response surface methodology was implemented in order to optimize the various parameters. By the design of experiments, the compound optimal concentrations of the three different organic acids (gluconic acid: lactic acid: citric acid with a ratio of 1:2:3) were 3.18 M, and S/L = 0.1, pH = 0.5, and the stirring speed = 386 rpm. With the aid of kinetic studies, a temperature of 75 °C, and a test time of 120 minutes, the highest nickel and cobalt recoveries were 25.5% and 37.6%, respectively. In the optimal conditions, the contribution of the percent solids to the nickel recovery was the most and negative, after which the contribution of pH was negative, and finally, the acid concentration had a positive effect. In the optimal conditions, the acid concentration, pH, and solid content were, respectively, important in the cobalt recovery. The SEM results showed that the surface of feed and residue particles in the optimal conditions was not significantly different, and the laboratory data was fitted to a shrinking core model. The results obtained indicated that the reaction rate was controlled by the diffusion reaction at the particle surface, and the activation energies of 11.09 kJ/mol for nickel and 28.04 kJ/mol for cobalt were consistent with this conclusionTue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100Probabilistic prediction of acid mine drainage generation risk based on pyrite oxidation ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1814_0.html
In this paper, we investigate a probabilistic approach in order to predict how acid mine drainage is generated within coal waste particles in NE Iran. For this, a database is built based on the previous studies that have investigated the pyrite oxidation process within the oldest abandoned pile during the last decade. According to the available data, the remaining pyrite fraction is considered as the output data, while the depth of the waste, concentration of bicarbonate, and oxygen fraction are the input parameters. Then the best probability distribution functions are determined on each one of the input parameters based on a Monte Carlo simulation. Also the best relationships between the input data and the output data are presented regarding the statistical regression analyses. Afterward, the best probability distribution functions of the input parameters are inserted into the linear statistical relationships to find the probability distribution function of the output data. The results obtained reveal that the values of the remaining pyrite fraction are between 0.764% and 1.811% at a probability level of 90%. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis carried out by applying the tornado diagram shows that the pile depth has, by far, the most critical factors affecting the pyrite remainingFri, 19 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100A Correlation for Estimating LCPC Abrasivity Coefficient using Rock Properties
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1782_195.html
Rock abrasivity, as one of the most important parameters affecting the rock drillability, significantly influences the drilling rate in mines. Therefore, rock abrasivity should be carefully evaluated prior to selecting and employing drilling machines. Since the tests for a rock abrasivity assessment require sophisticated laboratory equipment, empirical models can be used to predict rock abrasivity. Several indices based on five known methods have been introduced for assessing rock abrasivity including rock abrasivity index (RAI), Cerchar abrasivity index (CAI), Schimazek’s abrasivity factor (F-abrasivity), bit wear index (BWI), and LCPC abrasivity coefficient (LAC). In this work, 12 rock types with different origins were investigated using the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), Brazilian test for tensile strength, and longitudinal wave velocity and LCPC tests, and microscopic observations were made to obtain a correlation for estimating the LCPC abrasivity coefficient by conducting the conventional rock mechanics tests. Using the equivalent quartz content, velocity of longitudinal waves, and rock brittleness index, a linear correlation was obtained with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 93.3% using SPSS in order to estimate LAC.Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100Evaluation of Mine Reclamation Criteria Using Delphi-Fuzzy Approach
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1847_0.html
Mining and mineral industry have important role in supporting sustainable development of countries. Many countries rely on the income derived from natural resources, but the exploitation of the natural resources may impact the environment and destroy the ecosystem. Mining activities usually affect the surrounding lands and ecosystems. The natural, social, and economic environments are part of this ecosystem that are directly involved in these activities. In order to reduce environmentally destructive effects of mining on ecosystem, some important measures must be taken to minimize the negative impacts of mining and related industries. In this paper, for the first time in Iran, a study was conducted to define and categorize the reclamation criteria in three largest iron ore mines. During this research, an attempt was made to establish, define and evaluate forty reclamation criteria. Since the number of criteria is high, to adopt the best practice in mine reclamation program, these criteria should be prioritized. The defined criteria ranked by mining experts, mining managers and related university professors according to their experience and knowledge. The raw collected data were evaluated, processed by Delphi-Fuzzy process and finally analyzed using the Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method. The prioritized criteria can provide the authorities with a guideline to start reclamation planning based on the mining and environment requirements and budgeting and also to make the most fruitful, effective and low-cost decisions.Fri, 21 Aug 2020 19:30:00 +0100A 3D Finite-Difference Analysis of Interaction between a Newly-Driven Large Tunnel with Twin ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1783_195.html
Evaluation of the interaction between a new and the existing underground structures is one of the important problems in urban tunneling. In this work, using FLAC3D, four numerical models of single- and twin-tube tunnels in urban areas are developed, where the horizontal distance between the single- and twin-tube tunnels are varied. The aim is to analyze the effects of the horizontal distances, considering various criteria such as the deformation of linings, the forces and moments exerted on the twin-tube tunnels and their safety factors, the subsidence that occur on the surface and the nearby buildings, the stability of the single-tube tunnel, and the stability of the pillar lying between the single- and twin-tube tunnels. Considering the above-mentioned criteria, the results obtained indicate that the interaction between the single- and twin-tube tunnels is virtually negligible in the distance more than three times the single-tube tunnel diameter. Also the stability of the pillar lying between the tunnels makes the distance to be chosen at least 1.5 times the single-tube tunnel diameter.Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100Determination of an optimum interface between open pit and underground mining activities in ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1839_0.html
Due to the gradual deepening of the Mazinu coal seams from the ground surface, both the open-pit (OP) and underground (UG) mining methods can be applied for extracting them. Thus, it is a necessity to determine the interface of these mining methods optimally. The present paper aims to determine this interface by generating different scenarios using the OP phases and their relative underground stopes, and comparing them with each other. In this regard, an economic block model is created based on the calorific value of the coal portions involved by each block along with the required economic and technical parameters. Then using the Lerchs-Grossman algorithm, the OP phases are created. Proportional to each phase, the production scheduling of underground stopes is executed. Finally, in order to opt the best scenario, the net present value of the whole project (OP & UG) achieved from different scenarios are compared with each other. The results obtained indicate that the optimum interface of the OP and UG mining activities correspond to the ultimate OP limit with a maximum depth of 200 m from the ground surface.Sun, 02 Aug 2020 19:30:00 +0100Copper Price Prediction using Wave Count with Contribution of Elliott Waves
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1786_195.html
Within the last few decades, copper has been identified as one of the most applicable metals by many researchers. These researchers have also been enthusiastic to predict the price of this valuable metal. These days, the available technical analysis methods have been highly applied in the financial markets. Moreover, the researchers have used these methods to predict the suitable price trends. In the present work, some technical analysis tools including the Fibonacci series, Elliott waves, and Ichimuko clouds were practiced to scrutinize the price changes and predict the copper price. All copper prices from 2008 to 2016 were considered. Regarding the fractal property of these methods, the relations among prices were obtained within an eight-year time sequence. Since 2016, the copper price has been gradually deviated from its previous trend. Using the wave count and Elliott waves has specified that the wave number 1 and wave number 2 have been completed. Now, the time has come to develop the wave number 3. According to the relations introduced by the Elliott waves and the clouds made by Ichimiku, it was determined that the copper price would be almost $16000 per ton in 2022.Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100Mechanical Properties of Low Plasticity Clay Soil Stabilized with Iron Ore Mine Tailing and ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1790_195.html
Due to economical and environmental issues, utilization of mineral wastes, e.g. iron ore mine tailing (IOMT), as road materials can be recommended as a sustainable alternative. In the present study, mechanical properties, as well as resistance to freezing and thawing cycles (F-T) of low plasticity clay soil stabilized with different percentages of Portland cement (0, 6, 9, 12 and 15%) and different IOMT content (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%) has been investigated. To this end, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), initial elastic modulus (E0), and indirect tensile strength (ITS) at different curing times of 7, 14, 18, and 56 days for different admixtures was determined to select optimum mix design for stabilization of clayey subgrade soil. This study shows that by increasing the percentage of cement, strength parameters such as UCS, E0, and ITS increases while increasing IOMT does not show a specific trend to increase strength parameters. Evaluation of strength parameters at different curing time showed that in short-term curing times (7 and 14 days), iron ore mine tailing has a positive effect on the strength parameters, while in long-term curing times (28 and 56 days), iron ore mine tailing has a negative effect on the strength parameters. In total, it was found that 12% of the Portland cement and 10 to 40% of the IOMT passes the UCS and F-T criteria for stabilization of low plasticity clay soils, while clay soil (without IOMT) requires at least 15% of Portland cement for stabilization.Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100Behavior of a Tunnel and its Neighboring Joint with and without Presence of Rock Bolt under ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1813_195.html
In this work, the interaction between the semi-circular space and the neighboring joint with and without the presence of rock bolts was investigated using the particle flow code (PFC) approach. For this purpose, firstly, the calibration of PFC was performed using both the Brazilian experimental test and the uniaxial compression test. Secondly, a numerical model with the dimension of 100 mm * 100 mm was prepared. A semi-circular space with a radius of 25 mm was situated below the model. A joint with a length of 40 mm was situated above the space. The joint opening was 2 mm. The joint angles related to the horizontal direction were 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 75°. Totally, 6 different configurations of the semi-circular space and neighboring joint were prepared. These models were tested with and without the presence of vertical rock bolts by the biaxial test. The rock bolt length was 50 mm. The value of the lateral force was fixed at 2 MPa. An axial force was applied to the model till the final failure occurred. The results obtained showed that the presence of rock bolts changed the failure pattern of the numerical model. In the absence of rock bolts, two tensile wing cracks initiated from the joint tip and propagated diagonally till coalescence from the model boundary. Also several shear bands were initiated in the left and right sides of the tunnel. In the presence of rock bolts, several shear bands were initiated in the left and right sides of the tunnel. The compressive strength with the presence of rock bolts was more than that without the presence of rock bolts. The failure stress had a minimum value when the joint angle was 45°.Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100Integrating Geophysical Attributes with New Cuckoo Search Machine-Learning Algorithm to ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1857_195.html
The exploration methods are divided into the direct and indirect categories. Among these, the indirect geophysical methods are more time- and cost-effective compared with the direct methods. The target of the geophysical investigations is to obtain an accurate image from the underground features. The Induced polarization (IP) is one of the common methods used for metal sulfide ore detection. Since metal ores are scattered in the host rock in the Zarshouran mine area, IP is considered as a major exploration method. Parallel to IP, the resistivity data gathering and processing are done to get a more accurate interpretation. In this work, we try to integrate the IP/RS geophysical attributes with borehole grade analyses and geological information using the cuckoo search machine-learning algorithm in order to estimate the silver grade values. The results obtained show that it is possible to estimate the grade values from the geophysical data accurately, especially in the areas without drilling data. This reduces the costs and time of the exploration and ore reserves estimation. Comparing the results of the intelligent inversion with the numerical methods, as the major tools to invert the geophysical data to the ore model, demonstrate a superior correlation between the results.Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100Investigating and Ranking Blasting Patterns to Reduce Ground Vibration using Soft Computing ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1833_195.html
The blasting method is one of the most important operations in most open-pit mines that has a priority over the other mechanical excavation methods due to its cost-effectiveness and flexibility in operation. However, the blasting operation, especially in surface mines, imposes some environmental problems including the ground vibration as one of the most important ones. In this work, an evaluation system is provided to study and select the best blasting pattern in order to reduce the ground vibration as one of the hazards in using the blasting method. In this work, 45 blasting patterns used for the Sungun copper mine are studied and evaluated to help determine the most suitable and optimum blasting pattern for reducing the ground vibration. Additionally, due to the lack of certainty in the nature of ground and the analyses relating to this drilling system, in the first step, a combination of the imperialist competitive algorithm and k-means algorithm is used for clustering the measured data. In the second step, one of the multi-criteria decision-making methods, namely TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution), is used for the final ranking. Finally, after evaluating and ranking the studied patterns, the blasting pattern No. 27 is selected. This pattern is used with the properties including a hole diameter of 16.5 cm, number of holes of 13, spacing of 4 m, burden of 3 m, and ammonium nitrate fuel oil of 1100 Kg as the most appropriate blasting pattern leading to the minimum ground vibration and reduction of damages to the environment and structures constructed around the mine.Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100A New Method for Predicting Indirect Tensile Strength of Sandstone Rock Samples
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1834_195.html
The tensile strength (σt) of a rock plays an important role in the reliable construction of several civil structures such as dam foundations and types of tunnels and excavations. Determination of σt in the laboratory can be expensive, difficult, and time-consuming for certain projects. Due to the difficulties associated with the experimental procedure, it is usually preferred that the σt is evaluated in an indirect way. For these reasons, in this work, the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used to build a prediction model for the indirect prediction of σt of sandstone rock samples from their physical properties. Two ANFIS models are implemented, i.e. ANFIS-subtractive clustering method (SCM) and ANFIS-fuzzy c-means clustering method (FCM). The ANFIS models are applied to the data available in the open source literature. In these models, the porosity, specific gravity, dry unit weight, and saturated unit weight are utilized as the input parameters, while the measured σt is the output parameter. The performance of the proposed predictive models is examined according to two performance indices, i.e. mean square error (MSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). The results obtained from this work indicate that ANFIS-SCM is a reliable method to predict σt with a high degree of accuracy.Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100Development of a New Experimental Technique for Dynamic Fracture Toughness Measurement of Rocks ...
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1840_195.html
The dynamic fracture characteristics of rock specimens play an important role in analyzing the fracture issues such as blasting, hydraulic fracturing, and design of supports. Several experimental methods have been developed for determining the dynamic fracture properties of the rock samples. However, many used setups have been manufactured for metal specimens, and are not suitable and efficient for rocks. In this work, a new technique is developed to measure the dynamic fracture toughness of rock samples and fracture energy by modifying the drop weight test machine. The idea of wave transmission bar from the Hopkinson pressure bar test is applied to drop weight test. The intact samples of limestone are tested using the modified machine, and the results obtained are analyzed. The results indicate that the dynamic fracture toughness and dynamic fracture energy have a direct linear relationship with the loading rate. The dynamic fracture toughness and dynamic fracture energy of limestone core specimens under the loading rates of 0.12-0.56kN/µS are measured between 9.6-18.51MPa√m and 1249.73-4646.08J/m2, respectively. In order to verify the experimental results, a series of numerical simulation are conducted in the ABAQUS software. Comparison of the results show a good agreement where the difference between the numerical and experimental outputs is less than 4%. It can be concluded that the new technique on modifying the drop weight test can be applicable for measurement of the dynamic behavior of rock samples. However, more tests on different rock types are recommended for confirmation of the application of the developed technique for a wider range of rocks.Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100Investigation of Mechanism of Adsorption of Xanthate and Hydroxamate on Malachite
http://jme.shahroodut.ac.ir/article_1846_195.html
Copper oxide minerals such as malachite do not respond well to the traditional copper sulfide collectors, and require alternative flotation schemes. In many copper ore mines, significant copper oxide minerals, especially malachite, are associated with sulfide minerals. Considering that xanthates are most widely used in the flotation of sulfide minerals as well as copper sulfide minerals and, hydroxamate has shown a good selectivity for copper oxide minerals. Use of the synergistic effect of xanthate and hydroxamate can be an effective way to increase the flotation efficiency of copper oxide minerals along with sulfide minerals. In this work, we investigate the individual interactions of potassium amyl xanthate (PAX) and potassium alkyl hydroxamate (HXM) with the natural malachite and explore their synergistic effects on the malachite flotation. The results of solubility of malachite in collector solutions, changes in the malachite surface potential, adsorption kinetics, adsorption densities, dynamic contact angles, FT-IR analyses, and small-scale flotations, are discussed. The results obtained demonstrate that PAX and HXM are chemically co-adsorbed on the malachite surface, and the amount of PAX adsorbed on the malachite surface is considerably increased in the mixed PAX/HXM systems because of the co-adsorption mechanism. The flotation results confirm that the mixed PAX/HXM exhibit a superior flotation performance of malachite compared to the individual system of PAX or HXM. Based on these results, the mixed PAX/HXM exhibit a remarkable synergism effect on malachite surface hydrophobicity.Tue, 30 Jun 2020 19:30:00 +0100