Document Type : Case Study


1 Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran & Kusha Madan Consulting Engineers, Tehran, Iran

2 Simulation and Data Processing Laboratory, School of Mining Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

4 Kurdistan gold mines development Co, Sanandaj, Iran & Faculty of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran


The purpose of this work is to compare the linear and non-linear kriging methods in the mineral resource estimation of the Qolqoleh gold deposit in Saqqez, NW Iran. Considering the fact that the gold distribution is positively skewed and has a significant difference with a normal curve, a geostatistical estimation is complicated in these cases. Linear kriging, as a resource estimation method, can be problematic and gives an unrealistic gold grade. In order to check and correct the errors in the linear methods, the non-linear kriging method has been deployed. One of the applicant's non-linear estimation methods is Indicator Kriging (IK). The IK method converts grade values into binary units of 0 and 1 using multiple thresholds that can be selected by the number-size (N-S) fractal model. The N-S model identifies important and critical thresholds based on the grade distribution. In IK, the Multiple Indicator Kriging (Multiple IK) and Median Indicator Kriging (Median IK) methods could be involved due to the number of indicator thresholds. IK is not sensitive to high values. Here, we make a comparison between Median IK and Multiple IK as well as those with ordinary kriging (OK), which is a linear kriging method. Overall, we conclude that all of these methods are suitable for resource estimation among these methods, although the IK method is better for estimation in different categories of gold grades.


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