Document Type : Original Research Paper


School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, thehram, Iran


One of the most important instabilities of rock slopes is toppling failure. Among the types of toppling failure, block-flexural failures are more common instability which occurs in nature. In this failure, some rock blocks break because of tensile stresses, and some overturn under their weights, and next to all of them topple together. Physical and theoretical modeling of this failure is studied by Amini et al. in 2015. Due to the complexity of this failure mechanism, no appropriate numerical model has been proposed so far. In this research, first, a literature review of toppling failure is summarized. Then, using UDEC software as distinct element method (DEM), the experimental models were analyzed numerically, and Voronoi joint model was applied to simulate the failure. The results of numerical simulations are compared with the outcomes of physical models and analytical solution. The comparison illustrates that numerical modeling has good agreement with corresponding experimental tests and theoretical approach. Also, the results show that although the mechanism of block-flexural toppling failure is complicated, the numerical code is well capable to analyze of this failure.


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