Investigations were carried out on coal tailings by conventional cell and column flotation techniques. Tests were conducted to assess processing coal tailings of Alborz Markazi coal washing plant in Iran by column flotation. The effects of reagent type/dosage were investigated with conventional flotation and their results were used in the performance of column flotation. Also the effects of the air rate, the feeding rate, the wash water rate, the frother concentration, the collector dosage were evaluated with column flotation. These coal tailings have an average of 56% ash. This paper used factorial design to optimize grade and recovery of coal tailings. The column flotation results indicated concentrate produced under optimum conditions, kerosene, 2909 g/t; superficial air velocity, 0.96 cm/s; feeding rate, 3.6 lit/min; superficial wash water velocity, 0.98 lit/min; frother dosage, 350 g/t having an ash content of 12.11% and a combustible recovery of 28.51% was obtained.