Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Mining Engineering, Hamedan University of Technology, Hamedan, Iran

2 Department of Mining Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran


In this work, we investigate the interaction between tunnel and surface foundation in two dimensions by the particle flow code. At the first stage, the PFC calibration is conducted using the experimental test results rendered by a biaxial test. Then the simulation of a biaxial test is performed by confining a rectangular sample inside four walls. The walls are located at the top and bottom simulated loading plates and the adjacent walls are located at the left and right simulated sample side confinement. The velocities of the top and bottom walls are determined, and they are used for loading the sample in a strain-controlled mode. The respond of the material is evaluated by following the diverse stress and strain quantities. The axial deviatoric stress versus the axial strain for biaxial test on the bonded granular material is drawn, and then the Mohr's circle is drawn in order to reach the failure envelope of laboratory. Secondly, a rectangular model with dimensions of 10 m 10 m containing a central tunnel and a surface foundation is built. The tunnel is situated in sixteen different positions below the foundation. The foundation moves downward with a velocity of 0.016 mm/s. The results obtained show the position of the tunnel controlling the failure volume. Also the vertical displacement at the roof of the tunnel decreases by increasing the vertical spacing between tunnel and foundation. The settlement beneath the foundation increases by reducing the vertical spacing between the tunnel and the foundation. The settlement beneath the foundation decreases by augmenting the horizontal spacing between the tunnel and the foundation.


[1]. Lee, GTK., Ng, CWW. (2005). Effects of advancing open face tunneling on an existing loaded pile. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng, Vol. 131(2):193-201.
[2]. Peck, R.B. (1969). Deep excavation and tunneling in soft ground. In: State of the art report, 7th international conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering, Mexico City, pp. 225-290.
[3]. Cording, E.J. and Hansmire, W.H. (1975). Displacement around soft ground tunnels. In: Proceedings of the Pan-American Conference of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Vol. 4: 571-663.
[4]. Attewell, P.B. and Hurrell, M.R. (1985). Settlement development caused by tunneling in soil. Ground Eng. Vol. 18, 17-20.
[5]. Loganathan, N. and Poulos, H.G. (1998). Analytical prediction for tunneling-induced ground movements in clays. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. Vol. 124(9), 846-856.
[6]. Bobet, A. (2001). Analytical solution for shallow tunnels in saturated ground. J. Eng. Mech., Vol. 127(12), 125-137.
[7]. Rowe, R.K., Lo, K.Y., and Kack G.J. (1983). A method of estimating surface settlement above tunnels constructed in soft ground. Can. Geotech. J., Vol. 20, 11-22.
[8]. Addenbrooke, T.I. (1996). Numerical modelling in Stiff clay. PhD Thesis, Imperial College, London, UK.
[9]. Franzius, J.N., Potts, D.M., and Burland, J.B. (2005). The influence of soil anisotropy and k on ground surface movements resulting from tunnel excavation. Geo-technique, Vol. 55(3), 189-199.
[12]. Thai, D. and Nguyen, D. (2021). Safety assessment of an underground tunnel subjected to missile impact using numerical simulations.  Computers and Concrete, an Int'l Journal, Vol. 27(1):87-98.
[14]. Li, T.Z. and Yang, X.L. (2019). Face stability analysis of rock tunnels under water table using Hoek-Brown failure criterion. Geo-mechanics and Engineering, an Int'l Journal, Vol. 18(3): 53-66.
[15]. Yang, X.J., Deng, F.H., Wu, J.J., and Wang, F.Q. (2009). Response of carrying capacity of piles induced by adjacent metro tunneling. Min Sci Technol, Vol. 19: 176-81.
[16]. Zhang, J., Li, S. (2017) Grouting effects evaluation of water-rich faults and its engineering application in Qingdao Jiaozhou Bay Subsea tunnel, China.  Geo-mechanics and Engineering, an Int'l Journal, Vol. 12(1): 98-111.
[18]. Hallaji Dibavar, B. (2019). 3D Numerical Investigation of Ground Settlements Induced by Construction of Istanbul Twin Metro Tunnels with Special Focus on Tunnel Spacing , periodica plytechnica civil engineering, Vol. 5(1): 1225-1234.
[19]. Yan, q. (2019). 3D Numerical Simulation of Shield Tunnel Subjected to Swelling Effect Considering the Non-linearity of Joint Bending Stiffness, periodica plytechnica civil engineering, Vol. 8(4): 751-762.
20]. Zhao, h. (2016). Reliability-based Support Optimization of Rock-bolt Reinforcement around Tunnels in Rock Masses, periodica plytechnica civil engineering, Vol. 3(1): 250-258.
[21]. Mair, R.J. (1979). Centrifugal modelling of tunnel construction in soft clay. PhD Thesis, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK.
[22]. Taylor, R.N. (1984). Ground movements associated with tunnels and trenches. PhD Thesis, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK.
[23]. Cooper, M.L., Chapman, D.N., Rogers, C.D.F., and Chan, A.H.C. (2002). Movements of the Piccadilly line tunnels due to the heath row express construction. Geo-technique, Vol. 52(4), 243-257.
[24]. Suwansawat, S. and Einstein, H.H. (2007). Describing settlement troughs over twin tunnels using a superposition technique. J. Geo-tech. Geo-environ. Eng., Vol. 133(4), 445-468.
[25]. Addenbrooke, T.I. and Potts, D.M. (2001). Twin tunnel interaction surface and subsurface effects. Int. J. Geomech., Vol. 1, 249-271.
[26]. Hunt, D.V.L. (2005). Predicting the ground movements above twin tunnels constructed in London clay. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Birmingham.
[29]. Chen, G. (2019). An improved collapse analysis mechanism for the face stability of shield tunnel in layered soils. Geo-mechanics and Engineering, an Int'l Journal. Vol. 17(1): 99-111. 
[34]. Lee, Y. and Yoo, C. (2006). Behavior of a bored tunnel adjacent to a line of loaded piles.Tunn Underger Space Technol, Vol. 21(3-4): 370.
[35]. Wang, L. (2019) Elastic solutions for shallow tunnels excavated under non-axisymmetric displacement boundary conditions on a vertical surface.  Geo-mechanics and Engineering, an Int'l Journal, Vol. 19(3): 187-196.
[37]. Chapman, D.N., Ahn, S.K., Hunt, D.V.L., and Chan, A.H.C. (2006). The use of model tests to investigate the ground displacements associated with multiple tunnel construction in soil. Tunn. Undergr. Space Technol., Vol. 21 (3-4), 413.
[38]. Chapman, D.N., Ahn, S.K., and Hunt, D.V.L. (2007). Investigating ground movements caused by the construction of multiple tunnels in soft ground using laboratory model tests. Can. Geo-tech. J., Vol. 44,631-643.
[39]. Divall, S. (2013). Ground movements associated with twin-tunnel construction in clay. PhD Thesis, City University London, UK.
 [40]. Yoo, C. and Kim, S.B. (2008). Three dimensional numerical investigation of multi faced tunnelling in water bearing soft ground. Can Geotech J, Vol. 45(10): 1467-86.
[41]. Rabcewicz, L. (1964). The new austrian tunneling method. Part one. Water power November. Part two, December 1964 and part three, January 1965.
[42]. Muller, L. (1978). Removing misconceptions on the new austrian tunneling method. Tunn Tunnel, Vol. 10(8): 29-32.
[43].Vermeer, P.A. and Bonnier, P. (1991). Pile settlement due to tunneling. In proceedings of the 10th European cnference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering, Vol. 2, Florence, Italy, Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, p. 869-72.
[44]. Chen, L.T., Poulous, H.G., and Loganathan, N. (1999). Pile response caused by tunneling. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng, vol. 125(3):207-15.
[45]. Mroueh, H, Shahrour, I. (2002). Three dimensional finite element analysis of the interaction between tunneling and pile foundations. Int J Numer Anal Meth Geomech, Vol. 26: 217-30.
 [46]. Lee, C.J. and Chiang, K.H. (2007). Response of single piles to tunneling induced soil movments in sandy ground. Can Geotech J, Vol. 44: 1224-41.
 [47]. Cheng, C.Y., Dasari, G.R., Leung, C.F., Chow, Y.K., and Rosser, H.B. (2007). Finite element analysis of tunnel-soil-pile interaction using displacement controlled model. Tunnell Underger Space Technol, Vol. 22(5): 450-66.
[48]. Yoo, C. (2009). Prformance of multi faced tunneling-a 3D numerical investigation. Tunnell Undergr Space Technol, Vol. 24(5): 562-73.
[49]. Qibin, L. and Ping, C. (2021). Crack coalescence in rock-like specimens with two dissimilar layers and pre-existing double parallel joints under uniaxial compression, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Vol. 139: 39-53.
[50]. Lin, Q., Cao, P., Cao, R. et al (2020). Mechanical behavior around double circular openings in a jointed rock mass under uniaxial compression. Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 20, 19.
[51]. Itasca Consulting Group Inc, Particle flow code in 2-dimen-sions (PFC2D), Version 3.10.
[52]. Potyondy, D,O. and Cundall, P,A, (2004). A bonded-particle model for rock. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci, Vol. 41(8), (2004) 1329–1364.
[53]. Qibin, L. and Ping, C. (2020). Strength and failure characteristics of jointed rock mass with double circular holes under uniaxial compression: Insights from discrete element method modelling, Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, Vol. 109: 21-38.
[54]. Qibin, L. and Ping, C. (2021). Mechanical behavior of a jointed rock mass with a circular hole under compression-shear loading: Experimental and numerical studies. Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, Vol. 114: 51-68.