Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Nanotechnology Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Abdullah Gul University, Kayseri, Turkey.

2 Geological Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey.


Andesites with a satisfactory quality have been mainly considered as dimension stones worldwide. However, practical approaches are required to evaluate the dimension stone quality due to the increasing demand for natural resources. This study presents detailed laboratory investigations on andesitic rocks in NE Uşak, Turkey. For laboratory studies, representative rock blocks are obtained from unweathered (W0) to highly weathered (W3) rock masses. Laboratory test results demonstrate that progressive rock weathering has remarkable influences on the dry density (ρd), effective porosity (ne), pulse wave velocity (Vp), uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), flexural strength (FS), and Böhme abrasion value (AWR) of the andesitic rocks. Of the above parameters, ne seems to be the most affected rock property due to progressive rock weathering. Furthermore, based on the three-parameter Weibull distribution, andesitic rocks are evaluated for their use as cladding stones. A quantitative approach called the suitability index (SI) is proposed to quantify the quality of cladding stones for andesitic rocks, considering six different evaluation criteria (C1–C6). Two examples of SI calculations reveal the implementation of the proposed approach. The suitability of the proposed approach is also checked by Monte Carlo analysis, showing that the use of SI is suitable to quantify the cladding stone quality for the investigated andesitic rocks. However, the proposed approach should be improved by incorporating the mineralogical and textural characteristics into the SI calculations. Moreover, it should also be attempted to different andesitic rocks in order to observe the similarities or difficulties of quantifying the quality of cladding stones.


[1]. Pereira, D. and Marker, B. (2016). The value of original natural stone in the context of architectural heritage, Geosciences, 6: 13.
[2]. Neto, N. and de Brito, J. (2011) Inspection and defect diagnosis system for natural stone cladding, J. Mater. in Civ. Eng. 23: 1433–1443
[3]. Chinchane, A. and Sumant O. (2019). Natural Stone Market by Type (Marble, Granite, Limestone, and others) and Application (Flooring, Memorial Arts, Wall Cladding, and others): Global Opportunity Analysis and Industry Forecast, 2019–2026, Technical report, 211 pp.
[4]. Mustafa, S., Khan M.A., Khan, M.R., Sousa, L.M., Hameed, F., Mughal, M.S. and Niaz, A. (2016) Building stone evaluation—A case study of the sub-Himalayas, Muzaffarabad region, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan, Eng. Geol. 209: 56–69.
[5]. Bell, F.G. (2007). Engineering Geology, 2nd Ed. Elsevier, ISBN: 9780080469522.
[6]. Chau, K.T. and Shao J.F. (2005). Fracture and failure analysis of stone cladding on building facades, In 11th Int. Conf. on Fracture 2005, ICF11, 2202-2207.
[7]. Silva, A., Dias, J.L., Gaspar P.L. and de Brito J. (2011). Service life prediction models for exterior stone cladding, Build. Res. Inf. 39(6): 637–653.
[8]. Schaffer, R.J. (2016). The weathering of natural building stones, Routledge, ISBN: 1317742524, 9781317742524.
[9]. TS 10834 (1993). Gabbro used as Facing and Building Stone, Turkish Standards Institution, Ankara.
[10]. TS 10835 (1993). Andesite used as Facing and Building Stone, Turkish Standards Institution, Ankara.
[11]. TS 11137 (1993). Limestone used for building and facing, Turkish Standards Institution, Ankara.
[12]. ASTM C568/C568M (2015). Standard Specification for Limestone Dimension Stone, West Conshohocken.
[13]. ASTM C615/C615M (2018) Standard Specification for Granite Dimension Stone, West Conshohocken.
[14]. ASTM C1528/C1528M-18 (2018). Standard Guide for Selection of Dimension Stone, Philadelphia.
[15]. ASTM C1242 (2021). Standard Guide for Selection, Design, and Installation of Dimension Stone Attachment Systems, West Conshohocken, PA.
[16]. TS EN 1936 (2010). Natural stone test methods-Determination of real density and apparent density and of total and open porosity, Turkish Standards Institution, Ankara.
[17]. TS 699 (2009). Natural building stones-Methods of inspection and laboratory testing, Turkish Standards Institution, Ankara.
[18]. TS EN 1926 (2013). Natural stone test methods-Determination of uniaxial compressive strength, Turkish Standards Institution, Ankara.
[19]. TS EN 13161 (2014). Natural stone test methods-Determination of flexural strength under constant moment, Turkish Standards Institution, Ankara.
[20]. TS EN 14157 (2017). Natural stone test methods-Determination of the abrasion resistance, Turkish Standards Institution, Ankara.
[21]. Gupta, A.S. and Rao, K.S. (2000). Weathering effects on the strength and deformational behaviour of crystalline rocks under uniaxial compression state, Eng. Geol. 56(3-4): 257–274.
[22]. Ceryan, S., Tudes S. and Ceryan N. (2007). A new quantitative weathering classification for igneous rocks, Environ. Geol. 55(6): 1319–1336.
[23]. Stück, H., Siegesmund, S. and Rüdrich, J. (2011). Weathering behaviour and construction suitability of dimension stones from the Drei Gleichen area (Thuringia, Germany), Environ. Earth Sci. 63(7): 1763–1786.
[24]. Ündül, Ö. and Tugrul A. (2016). On the variations of geo-engineering properties of dunites and diorites related to weathering, Environ. Earth Sci. 75(19): 1-15.
[25]. Koca, T.K. and Koca, M.Y. (2019). Classification of weathered andesitic rock materials from the İzmir Subway line on the basis of strength and deformation, Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ. 78(5): 3575–3592.
[26]. Köken, E., Top, S. and Özarslan, A. (2020). Assessment of rock aggregate quality through the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Geotech. Geol. Eng. 38: 5075–5096.
[27]. Park, H.J., Woo, I. and Um J. (2009) Probabilistic Analysis for Rock Slope Stability due to Weathering Process, Econ Environ Geol. 42(4), 357-366.
[28]. Ersöz, T. and Topal, T. (2018) Assessment of rock slope stability with the effects of weathering and excavation by comparing deterministic methods and slope stability probability classification (SSPC). Environ Earth Sci., 77(14):547.
[29]. Asmare, D. and Hailemariam, T. (2021) Assessment of rock slope stability using slope stability probability classification (SSPC) system, around AlemKetema, North Shoa, Ethiopia, Sci. African, 12: e00730
[30]. Koralay, T., Kadioğlu Y.K. and Fallick T. (2012). The geochemistry of silica occurrences from Altıntaş region (Uşak-Western Anatolia) and oxygen isotopic composition, In: 65th Geological Congress of Turkey, 2-6 April, 2012, 368-369.
[31]. Başpınar Tuncay, E. Dedeoğlu, D. and Yağmurlu, F. (2016) Altıntaş Köyü (Uşak) Kuzeyindeki Andezitik Kayaçların Kaplama ve Döşeme Taşı Olarak Kullanılabilirliğinin Araştırılması, The Journal of Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University 7(1): 75-83 (in Turkish).
[32]. ISRM (2007) The complete ISRM suggested methods for rock characterization, testing, and monitoring: 1974–2006, In: Ulusay R, Hudson JA (Eds) Suggested methods prepared by the commission on testing methods. Int. Soc. Rock Mech. (ISRM), Ankara, Turkey.
[33]. Karpuz, C. and Paşamehmetoğlu, A.G. (1997). Field characterization of weathered Ankara andesites, Eng. Geol. 46(1): 1–17.
[34]. Tugrul, A. (2004). The effect of weathering on pore geometry and compressive strength of selected rock types from Turkey, Eng. Geol. 75(3-4): 215-227.
[35]. Arikan, F., Ulusay R. and Aydın N. (2007). Characterization of Weathered Acidic Volcanic Rocks and a Weathering Classification based on a Rating System, Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ. 66: 415–430.
[36]. Ündül, Ö. and Tugrul, A. (2012). The influence of weathering on the engineering properties of dunites, Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 45(2): 225–239.
[37]. Momeni, A.A., Khlanlari, G.R., Heidari, M., Sepahi, A.A. and Bazvand E. (2015). New engineering geological weathering classifications for granitoid rocks, Eng. Geol. 185: 43–51.
[38]. Monticelli, J.P., Sígolo, J.B. and Futai, M.M. (2021). On weathering understanding and its characterization by petrographic indices: a study case about the criterion establishment for the textural classification of rock-forming minerals under weathering. Environ. Earth Sci. 80(11): 1–17.
[39]. Siegesmund, S., Weiss, T. and Vollbrecht, A. (2002). Natural stone, weathering phenomena, conservation strategies, and case studies: Introduction, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 205(1), 1-7.
[40]. Sousa, L.M., Oliveira, A.S. and Alves, I. (2013). Assessing fracturing in weathered granites: the example of the Mondim de Basto Granite (Northern Portugal), Key Eng. Mater. 548: 48–54.
[41]. Cabria, X.A. (2015). Effects of weathering in the rock and rock mass properties and the influence of salts in the coastal roadcuts in Saint Vincent and Dominica, Master's thesis, University of Twente.
[42]. Anon, O. H. (1979). Classification of rocks and soils for engineering geological mapping, part 1—Rock and soil materials. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 19(1), 364–371.