Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 School of Mining, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Mine Environment and Hydrogeology Research Laboratory, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Earth Science Engineering, Arak University of Technology, Arak, Iran

4 School of Civil Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Queensland, Australia

5 Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Czech Republic


Considering that mining has many environmental impacts from the exploration phase to production and finally closure, it is necessary to plan the activities so that the concept of green mining is realized in its true meaning. This means that mining is carried out in order to obtain the minerals that are used in various industries; however, by taking appropriate measures, the impacts of mining on the environment are reduced to a minimum level. Since there is little information about the environmental, ecological, hydrological, and hydrogeological status in most mining areas, a comprehensive study of the area's water, soil, plants, and animal species should be conducted. The existence of permanent and seasonal rivers in the vicinity of some mines, in some cases being located in protected areas of the Iranian Department of Environment, and the presence of vegetation near some mines are among the matters that cause many environmental challenges in the mining areas. For this purpose, a series of comprehensive studies are critical in the pre-mining, during mining, and closure phases of the mine life. In addition, detailed studies should be done on factories such as smelters located in the mining areas. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is widely used in order to determine the environmental status of these factories. Furthermore, the issue of process water and water recycling, as well as waste management, should be considered. Nowadays, the environmental monitoring technology is one of the widely used tools in many mines in the world. Moreover, these mining companies' green space management system should be given special attention according to the obligatory standards of the Iranian Department of Environment. In this paper, a conceptual framework for the green mining method will be introduced for the coal mines to consider the economic and social aspects, and we pay a special attention to the health, safety, and environmental requirements.


[1]. Doulati Ardejani F, Shafaei S.Z., Mirhabibi, A., and Badii Kh. (2005). Biotechnology, Environmental Geochemistry, and Management of Waste Drainages, Volume 1: Mine Drainages, Institute for Colorants, Paints and Coatings, 248 p.
[2]. Wang, Y.M., Yang, J.B., and Xu, D.L., (2006). "Environmental impact assessment using the evidential reasoning approach". European Journal of Operational Research, 174, pp. 1885–1913.
[3]. Thomas, T. T., Sony, C. D., and Kuruvila, E. C., (2017). "Rapid environmental impact assessment of ecotourism in Pookote Lake, Wayanad". International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, 4(4), pp. 3149–3154.
[4]. Mohebali, S., Maghsoudy, S., and Doulati Ardejani, F., (2020). "Application of data envelopment analysis in environmental impact assessment of a coal washing plant: A new sustainable approach". Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 83, 14 p.
[5]. Lottermoser, B.G., (2010). Mine Wastes, Characterization, Treatment, and Environmental Impacts, 3rd edition, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
[6]. Triantafyllidis, S. and Skarpelis, N., (2006). "Mineral formation in an acid pit lake from a high-sulfidation ore deposit: Kirki, NE Greece". Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 88(1-3), pp. 68–71.
[7]. Wang, J., Wang, R., Zhu, Y., and Li, J., (2018). "Life cycle assessment and environmental cost accounting of coal-fired power generation in China". Energy Policy, 115, pp. 374–384.
[8]. Hui-qi Shi, (2012). "Mine green mining". Energy Procedia, 16, pp. 409–416.
[9]. Pandey, B., Mukherjee, A., Agrawal, M., and Singh, S., (2019). Assessment of seasonal and site specific variations in soil physical, chemical, and biological properties around opencast coal mines. Pedosphere, 29 (5), pp. 642-655.
[10]. Jabbar Khan, A., Akhter, G., Gabriel, H. F., and Shahid, M., (2020). Anthropogenic effects of coal mining on ecological resources of the central Indus Basin, Pakistan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(4), 1255, 18p.
[11]. Dhakate, R., Modi, D., and Rao, V.V.S.G., (2019). Impact assessment of coal mining on river water and groundwater and its interaction through hydrological, isotopic characteristics, and simulation flow modeling. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 12, 14 p.
[12]. Atkins, A.S. and Pooley, F.D., (1982). The effects of bio-mechanisms on acidic mine drainage in coal mining. International Journal of Mine Water, 1, pp. 31-44.
[13]. Rubio, R.F. and Del Olmo, A.G. (1995). Mining drainage and water supply under sustainable constraints. Proceedings on Water Resources at Risk, W.R. Hotckkiss, J.S. Downey, E.D. Gutentag and J.E. Moore (Eds.), May 14-18, Denver, American Institute of Hydrology, pp. 23-32.
[14]. Environment Australia, (1997). Managing sulphidic mine wastes and acid drainage. One booklet in a series on best practice environmental management in mining, Commonwealth of Australia.
[15]. Williams, R.E. (1975). Waste production and disposal in mining, milling, and Metallurgical industries, Miller-Freeman Publishing Company, San Francisco, California, 489 p.
[16]. Robb, G.A. and Robinson, J.D.F., (1995). Acid drainage from mines, The Geographical Journal, 161(1), pp. 47-54.
[17]. Perry, A. and Kleinmann, R.L.P. (1991). The use of constructed wetlands in the treatment of acid mine drainage. Natural Resources Forum, 15 (3), pp. 178-184.
[18]. Doulati Ardejani, F. (2003). Hydrogeological investigation of backfilled surface coal mine sites, PhD Thesis, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
[19]. Skousen, J., Zipper, C.E., Rose, A., Ziemkiewicz, P.F., Nairn, R., McDonald, L.M., and Kleinmann, R.L., (2016). Review of passive systems for acid mine drainage treatment. Mine Water and the Environment, 36(1), pp. 133–153.
[20]. Chen, J., Jiskani, I.M., Jinliang, C., and Yan, H., (2020). Evaluation and future framework of green mine construction in China based on the DPSIR model. Sustainable Environment Research, 30, 13, 10 p.
[21]. Leopold, L.B., Clarke, F.E., Hanshaw, B.B., and Balsley, J.R., (1971). "A procedure for evaluating environmental impact". Geological Survey Circular 645. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 13 p.
[22]. Mirmohammadi, M., Gholamnejad, J., Fattahpour, V., Seyedsadri, P., and Ghorbani, Y., (2009). "Designing of an environmental assessment algorithm for surface mining projects". Journal of Environmental Management, 90, 2422–2435.
[23]. Ijäs, A., Kuitunen, M.T., and Jalava, K., (2009). "Developing the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) in the context of impact significance assessment": Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 30 (2), pp. 82-89.
[24]. Phillips, J., (2010). "The advancement of a mathematical model of sustainable development".
Sustainability Science,
5 (1), pp. 127–142.
[25]. Lozano, S., Iribarren, D., Moreira, M.T., and Feijoo, G., (2009). "The link between operational efficiency and environmental impacts: a joint application of life cycle assessment and data envelopment analysis". Science of the Total Environment, 407, pp. 1744–1754.
[26]. SIMAPRO (2008). SIMAPRO 7.3. Database Manual Pre Consultants. B.V. Plotterweg 12, 3821 BB Amersfoort, The Netherlands.