Document Type : Original Research Paper
- F. Doulati Ardejani 1, 2
- S. Maghsoudy 1, 2
- M. Shahhosseini 2, 3
- B. Jodeiri Shokri 4
- Sh. Doulati Ardejani 5
- F. Shafaei 1, 2
- F. Amirkhani Shiraz 2
- A. Rajaee 2
1 School of Mining, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Mine Environment and Hydrogeology Research Laboratory, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Earth Science Engineering, Arak University of Technology, Arak, Iran
4 School of Civil Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Queensland, Australia
5 Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Czech Republic
Considering that mining has many environmental impacts from the exploration phase to production and finally closure, it is necessary to plan the activities so that the concept of green mining is realized in its true meaning. This means that mining is carried out in order to obtain the minerals that are used in various industries; however, by taking appropriate measures, the impacts of mining on the environment are reduced to a minimum level. Since there is little information about the environmental, ecological, hydrological, and hydrogeological status in most mining areas, a comprehensive study of the area's water, soil, plants, and animal species should be conducted. The existence of permanent and seasonal rivers in the vicinity of some mines, in some cases being located in protected areas of the Iranian Department of Environment, and the presence of vegetation near some mines are among the matters that cause many environmental challenges in the mining areas. For this purpose, a series of comprehensive studies are critical in the pre-mining, during mining, and closure phases of the mine life. In addition, detailed studies should be done on factories such as smelters located in the mining areas. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is widely used in order to determine the environmental status of these factories. Furthermore, the issue of process water and water recycling, as well as waste management, should be considered. Nowadays, the environmental monitoring technology is one of the widely used tools in many mines in the world. Moreover, these mining companies' green space management system should be given special attention according to the obligatory standards of the Iranian Department of Environment. In this paper, a conceptual framework for the green mining method will be introduced for the coal mines to consider the economic and social aspects, and we pay a special attention to the health, safety, and environmental requirements.
Sustainability Science, 5 (1), pp. 127–142.