Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran

2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Birjand University of Technology, Birjand, Iran


In the present work, the cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized using the Ferula extract. Ferula acts as a naturally-sourced reducing agent and stabilizer for the construction of the CdO NPs. The biosynthesized CdO NPs are characterized by different techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), spectroscopy and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). After ensuring a successful synthesis of the CdO NPs, their photocatalytic activity is studied for the degradation of ciprofloxacin antibiotic in aqueous media under the sunlight. Approximately 95% degradation of ciprofloxacin using the CdO NPs is achieved after 60 minutes. The recycling experiments confirm the high stability and durability of the CdO NPs. Therefore, this work illustrates an efficient strategy for the photo-degradation of ciprofloxacin, and provides a new insight into the removal of pharmaceutical contaminants in aquatic environments.


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