Document Type : Case Study


Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Hamirpur, India



The complex geography of the Himalayan mountain range, along with the natural circumstances that already exist and the ways in which people have influenced and intervened in the region- makes various regions of the range vulnerable to slope instability. The slope stability of the area that is the subject of this work is evaluated in Palampur, which is in the Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh. The primary objective of this work is to ensure that the slope remains stable so that the nearby three-sided residential structures and the highway remain protected. After the site visit, the geo-technical studies, which include testing in the form of bore holes and in the laboratory, are carried out. After evaluating the geo-technical technical report, the next step in the process is to begin the analysis of the slope's stability. In order to do an analytical analysis of the slope stability, the area has been subdivided into three portions, and labelled A-A, B-B, and C-C, respectively. Using the numerical modelling approaches, the mitigation design parameters for the area and the circular slip failure are computed. These calculations are based on the geo-technical characteristics of the studied area that have been specified. The factor of safety is calculated for both the natural and stable scenarios by the program. Because of this, some preventative steps and a few improvements are suggested. 


[1]. Sarfaraz, H., Bahrami, A.R., and Samani, R. (2022). Numerical Modelling of Slide-Head-Toppling Failure using FEM and DEM Methods. Journal of Mining and Environment. 13 (1): 269-280.
[2]. Khosravi, M.H., Pipatpongsa, T., Takemura, J., and Amini, M. (2017). Influence of modeling material on undercut slope failure mechanism. Journal of Mining and Environment. 8 (4). 645-662.
[3]. Zebarjadi Dana, H., Khaloo Kakaie, R., Rafiee, R., and Yarahmadi Bafghi, A.R. (2018). Effects of geometrical and geomechanical properties on slope stability of open-pit mines using 2D and 3D finite difference methods. Journal of mining and Environment. 9 (4). 941-957.
[4]. Turanboy, A., Ülker, E., and Küçüksütçü, C.B. (2018). A new approach for assessing stability of rock slopes considering centroids of weak zones. Journal of Mining and Environment. 9 (1). 1-18.
[5]. Sarfaraz, H. (2020). Stability analysis of block-flexural toppling of rock blocks with round edges. Journal of Mining and Environment. 11 (4). 1217-1229.
[6]. Alikhani, A., Taheri Moghadder, M., and Mohammadi, H. (2020). Investigation of Bishop’s and Janbu’s Models Capabilities on Slope Stability Problems with Special Consideration to Open-Pit Mining Operations. Journal of Mining and Environment. 11 (1). 161-170.
[7]. Shah, K.S., Mohd Hashim, M.H., Ariffin, K.S., and Nordin, N.F. (2020). A Preliminary Assessment of Rock Slope Stability in Tropical Climates: A Case Study at Lafarge Quarry, Perak, Malaysia. Journal of Mining and Environment. 11 (3). 661-673.
[8]. Fattahi, H., Babanouri, N., and Varmaziyari, Z. (2018). A Monte Carlo simulation technique for assessment of earthquake-induced displacement of slopes. Journal of Mining and Environment. 9 (4). 959-966.
[9]. Shafiei Ganjeh, R., Memarian, H., Khosravi, M.H., and Mojarab, M. (2019). A comparison between effects of earthquake and blasting on stability of mine slopes: a case study of Chadormalu open-pit mine. Journal of mining and Environment. 10 (1). 223-240.
[10]. Hussain, S., Rehman, Z.U., Khan, N. M., Ahmad, I., Raza, S., Tahir, M., and Sherin, S. (2021). Proposing a Viable Stabilization Method for Slope in a Weak Rock Mass Environment using Numerical Modelling: a Case Study from Cut Slopes. Journal of Mining and Environment. 12 (4). 929-940.
[11]. Adil, M., Raza, S., and Amin, I. (2021). Rock Fall Hazard Assessment using GeoRock 2D along Swat Motorway, Pakistan. Journal of Mining and Environment. 12 (2). 351-365.
[12]. Kumar, A., Sharma, R.K., and Mehta, B.S. (2020). Slope stability analysis and mitigation measures for selected landslide sites along NH-205 in Himachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Earth System Science. 129 (1). 1-14.
[13]. Shooshpasha, I., Amirdehi, H.A., and Kharun, M. (2020, November). Factors influencing the critical piles length in reinforced slope. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1687, No. 1, p. 012018). IOP Publishing.
[14]. TOLUN, M., Buse, Ü.N., EMİRLER, B., and YILDIZ, A. (2021). Stability Analyses of a Slope Reinforced with Piles Subjected to Static and Dynamic Loading Conditions. El-Cezeri. 8 (3). 1360-1371.
[15]. D. Christodoulou, P. Lokkas, A. Droudakis, X. Spiliotis, D. Kasiteropoulou, and N. Alamanis, “The Development of Practice in Permeation Grouting by using Fine-grained Cement Suspensions,” Asian J. Eng. Technol., Vol. 9, No. 6, pp. 92–101, 2021, doi: 10.24203/ajet.v9i6.6846.
[16]. Ntalianis, K., Ntaliani, M., Kikili, V., Ntalianis, F., and Mastorakis, N. (2021). Inaccessible Island vs Urban Education in Greece. WSEAS Transactions on Advances in Engineering Education, 18, 1-6.
[17]. M. Kisan, S. Sangathan, J. Nehru, and S. G. Pitroda, “म ा नक,” 1996.
[18]. Bryson, L.S., and Giraldo, J.R. (2020). Analysis of case study presenting ground anchor load-transfer response in shale stratum. Canadian Geotechnical Journal. 57 (1). 85-99.
[19]. B. of Indian Standards, “IS 14448 (1997): Code of practice for reinforcement of rock slopes with plane wedge failure,” 1997.
[20]. IS14243-2, “Guidelines for selection and development of site for building in hill areas, Part 2: Selection and development,” Bur. Indian Stand. N.Delhi, India, 1995.
[21]. Liu, Y., and Glass, G. (2013). Effects of Mesh Density on Finite Element Analysis 2013-01-1375.
[22]. Acharyya, R., and Dey, A. (2017). Finite element investigation of the bearing capacity of square footings resting on sloping ground. INAE Letters. 2 (3). 97-105.
[23]. Sarfaraz, H., Khosravi, M.H., and Pipatpongsa, T. (2021). Numerical Stability Analysis of Undercut Slopes Evaluated by Response Surface Methodology. Journal of Mining and Environment. 12 (1). 31-43.
[24]. Koushik, P., Shantanu, S., Manojit, S., and Mahesh, S. (2016, November). Stability analysis and design of slope reinforcement techniques for a Himalayan landslide. In Recent Advances in Rock Engineering (RARE 2016) (pp. 97-104). Atlantis Press.
[25]. Tiwari, G., and Latha, G.M. (2016). Design of rock slope reinforcement: an Himalayan case study. Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. 49 (6). 2075-2097.