Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Mining Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Faculty of Civil, Water & Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran



High-level vibrations caused by blasting operations in open-pit mining can exert adverse effects such as destruction of surrounding surface structures. Therefore, it is essential to identify the factors effective in mitigating the damaging effects of ground vibration in open-pit mines, and monitor them. This study investigates the effects of some of the most important blast design parameters in a row of blast holes. According to the advantages of numerical methods, the 3D discrete element method is employed for this purpose. The Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) values are measured along the central hole at the distances of one meter. The results obtained demonstrate that an increase in the blast damage factor and inter-hole delay time results in higher PPV values. However, the increased delay time has no remarkable effect on reducing the development of the blast damage zone. On the other hand, as the decoupling increases, the PPV values diminish, leading to substantial reductions in the ground vibration and rock mass damage. It is also observed that the elimination of sub-drilling does not significantly reduce ground vibrations. The analysis of the results obtained from the numerical modeling show that the discontinuities of the rock mass act as a filter, which could decrease the wave energy by more than 90%. Moreover, it is found that the direction of the discontinuities also affects the emission of waves caused by the blast. The PPV values are reduced, and the damaged zone is less developed if the discontinuities are opposite of the slope surface.