Document Type : Original Research Paper

Authors

Department of Mining Engineering, IIT(ISM) Dhanbad, India

10.22044/jme.2023.13013.2360

Abstract

In open-pit mine, safety of internal dumps is a significant pointer on the economic perspective of the overall project. It has been found in several studies that unplanned and random deposition of the overburdened material is the main reason for mishaps and failure. The study utilized unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to map the mine dumps, and the precise 3D geometry of the same was reconstructed to evaluate the safety using numerical methods. A framework is proposed to assess and identify the potential zone of instability in the mine dumps. The study was conducted at the open-pit mine at the Raniganj coalfield of Paschim Bardhaman in West Bengal, India. The study assessed the internal dump safety using a 3D limit equilibrium method and numerical methods. Finally, optimum parameters are suggested for the mine dumps geometry under the prevailing geo-mining conditions of the mine site. The framework proposed here for assessing critical zones in mine dumps is cost-effective, easy to use, quick, and efficient.

Keywords

Main Subjects

[1]. S. Layek, V. G. K. Villuri, R. Koner, and K. Chand, "Rainfall & Seismological Dump Slope Stability Analysis on Active Mine Waste Dump Slope with UAV," Advances in Civil Engineering, Vol. 2022, 2022.
[2]. T. Gupta, R. Rai, A. Jaiswal, and B. K. Shrivastva, "Sensitivity Analysis of Coal Rib Stability for Internal Mine Dump in Opencast Mine by Finite Element Modelling," Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 705–712, Jun. 2014.
[3]. D. Verma, A. Kainthola, S. S. Gupte, and T. N. Singh, "A Finite Element Approach of Stability Analysis of Internal Dump Slope in Wardha Valley Coal Field," American Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1–6, 2013, doi: 10.12691/ajmm-1-1-1.
[4]. A. K. Bharati, A. Ray, M. Khandelwal, R. Rai, and A. Jaiswal, "Stability evaluation of dump slope using artificial neural network and multiple regression," Eng Comput, Vol. 38, pp. 1835–1843, Aug. 2022.
[5]. A. K. Dash, "Analysis of accidents due to slope failure in Indian opencast coal mines." Current Science (00113891). 7/25/2019, Vol. 117 Issue 2, pp 304-308. 5p.
[6]. P. Kumar Behera, K. Sarkar, A. Kumar Singh, A. K. Verma, and T. N. Singh, "Dump Slope Stability Analysis-A Case Study," 2016.
[7]. M. D. Fredlund, D. G. Fredlund, and L. Zhang, "Moving from 2D to a 3D Unsaturated Slope Stability Analysis."
[8]. R. Rai, S. Kalita, T. Gupta, and B. K. Shrivastva, "Sensitivity Analysis of Internal Dragline Dump stability: Finite Element Analysis," Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 1397–1404, Dec. 2012.
[9]. R. Koner, "Estimation of Optimum Geometric Configuration of Mine Dumps in Wardha Valley Coalfields in India: A Case study," Journal of Mining and Environment, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 907–927, Sep. 2021.
[10]. S. S. C. Congress and A. J. Puppala, "Geo-technical slope stability and rockfall debris related safety assessments of rock cuts adjacent to a rail track using aerial photogrammetry data analysis," Transportation Geotechnics, Vol. 30, Sep. 2021.
[11]. S. S. C. Congress, A. J. Puppala, P. Kumar, A. Banerjee, and U. Patil, "Methodology for Resloping of Rock Slope Using 3D Models from UAV-CRP Technology," Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 147, No. 9, Sep. 2021.
[12]. A. Falamaki, A. Shafiee, and A. H. Shafiee, "Under and post-construction probabilistic static and seismic slope stability analysis of Barmshour Landfill, Shiraz City, Iran," Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, Vol. 80, No. 7, pp. 5451–5465, Jul. 2021.
[13]. B. Poulsen, M. Khanal, A. M. Rao, D. Adhikary, and R. Balusu, "Mine Overburden Dump Failure: A Case Study," Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 297–309, Apr. 2014.
[14]. R. Koner and D. Chakravarty, "Evaluation of Seismic Response of External Mine Overburden Dumps." In Proceedings of the 5th International Conferences on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, San Diego, California.
[15]. Chai, S., 2022. Maximum height estimation for mine waste dumps. Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 122(10), pp. 579-586.
[16]. Hao Wang, Jianhong Zhang, and Honglin Lin (2022) Satellite-based analysis of landfill landslide: the case of the 2015 Shenzhen landslide, International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 16:3, 293-300.
[17]. Rai, R., Khandelwal, M., and Jaiswal, A. Application of geogrids in waste dump stability: a numerical modeling approach. Environ Earth Sci 66, 1459–1465 (2012).
[18]. Tarun Kumar Rajak, Laxmikant Yadu, Sandeep Kumar Chouksey, and Pankaj Kumar Dewangan (2021) Stability analysis of mine overburden dump stabilized with fly ash, International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 15:5, 587-597, DOI: 10.1080/19386362.2018.1503780.
[19]. Ranjan, V., Sen, P., Kumar, D. et al. Enhancement of mechanical stability of waste dump slope through establishing vegetation in a surface iron ore mine. Environ Earth Sci 76, 35 (2017).
[20]. Westoby, M.J. et al. "‘Structure-from-Motion’ Photogrammetry: A Low-Cost, Effective Tool for Geoscience Applications." Geomorphology, Vol. 179, 2012, pp. 300-314.
[21]. Lato, M. et al. "Rock Bench: Establishing a Common Repository and Standards for Assessing Rockmass Characteristics Using LiDAR and Photogrammetry." Computers & Geosciences, vol. 50, 2013, pp. 106-114, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2012.06.014. Accessed 5 Jul. 2023.
[22]. Kong, Deheng et al. "Development and Application of UAV-SfM Photogrammetry for Quantitative Characterization of Rock Mass Discontinuities." International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Vol. 141, 2021, p. 104729.
[23]. Bar, Neil et al. "Rapid and Robust Slope Failure Appraisal using Aerial Photogrammetry and 3D Slope Stability Models." International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, Vol. 30, No. 5, 2020, pp. 651-658.
[24]. Kumar, N.S. and Ismail, M.A.M., 2020, May. 3D limit equilibrium method for rock slope stability analysis using generalized anisotropic material model. In Proceedings of the 2020 International Symposium on Slope Stability in Open-Pit Mining and Civil Engineering, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, WA, USA (pp. 12-14).
[25]. E. Kotsi et al., “Using UAS-Aided Photogrammetry to Monitor and Quantify the Geomorphic Effects of Extreme Weather Events in Tectonically Active Mass Waste-Prone Areas: The Case of Medicane Ianos,” Applied Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 2, p. 812, Jan. 2023.
[26]. Valkaniotis, Sotiris et al. "Mapping an Earthquake-Induced Landslide Based on UAV Imagery; Case Study of the 2015 Okeanos Landslide, Lefkada, Greece." Engineering Geology, vol. 245, 2018, pp. 141-152. Accessed 5 Jul., 2023.
[27]. J. Hao, X. Zhang, C. Wang, H. Wang, and H. Wang, “Application of UAV Digital Photogrammetry in Geological Investigation and Stability Evaluation of High-Steep Mine Rock Slope,” Drones, Vol. 7, No. 3, p. 198, Mar. 2023, doi: 10.3390/drones7030198.
[28]. Eltner, A., Kaiser, A., Castillo, C., Rock, G., Neugirg, F., and Abellán, A., 2016. Image-based surface reconstruction in geomorphometry–merits, limits and developments. Earth Surface Dynamics, 4(2), pp. 359-389.
[29]. Chen, L. C., Lo, C. Y., Liu, C. L., and Chen, A. J.: Orientation modelling by matching image templates of a GCP database, Proc. 21st ACRS, 21, 2000.
[30] Nesbit, P.R. and Hugenholtz, C.H. Enhancing UAV–SfM 3D Model Accuracy in High-Relief Landscapes by Incorporating Oblique Images. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 239.
[31]. Chand, K., Koner, R. Failure Zone Identification and Slope Stability Analysis of Mine Dump Based on Realistic 3D Numerical Modeling. Geotech Geol Eng (2023).