Document Type : Original Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Mining Engineering, Federal University of Technology Akure, Akure, Nigeria

2 Department of Applied Geology, Federal University of Technology Akure, Akure, Nigeria

10.22044/jme.2023.13550.2503

Abstract

Nigeria is abundantly blessed with solid mineral resources such as copper, gold, and tantalite, which are essential for the economic growth of the country. The extraction of these mineral resources comes with the generation of huge amount of waste. This study examines the possibility of utilizing some mine wastes from Jos, Nigeria, in embankment construction by subjecting them to relevant laboratory geotechnical experiments. The results indicates that the overburden materials contain clay-sized fraction ranging 5-20%, while the sand fraction ranged 42-82%, which is an indication of the predominance of sand size particles. On the other hand, the clay-sized particles in the tailings range 5-21%, while the sand fractions range 65-80%. The overburden materials recorded liquid limit values ranging 26-48% and plasticity index ranging 6.3-21%, while the liquid limit and plasticity index of the tailings range 23-32.8% and 6.2-11.6%, respectively. The maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) of the overburden materials vary 1.84-1.98 mg/m3 and 1.4-17.2%, respectively, with an average of 1.89 mg/cm3 and 16%. On the other hand, the tailings recorded MDD ranging 1.88-2.06 mg/m3 with their OMC ranging 14.4-16% with an average 14.86%. The soaked California bearing ratio (CBR) of the overburden materials range 27-32%, while that of tailings ranges 25-32%. The geotechnical evaluation of the overburden materials and tailings reveals that most of the materials are suitable for embankment construction. However, the high linear shrinkage of some wastes renders them unsuitable.

Keywords

Main Subjects

[1]. Owolabi, A.O. (2017). Geoenvironmental Evaluation of Abandoned Mine Sites in Jos Area, Plateau State, Nigeria. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria p 123-206.
[2] Roy, S, Govind, R., Adhikari, R, and N. Gupta (2007). Use of gold mill tailings in making bricks: a feasibility study. Waste Manage Res 25: 475–482.
[3]. Bastos, L.A.D., Silva, G.C., Mendes, J.C., and Peixoto, R.A.F (2016). Using Iron Ore Tailings from Tailing Dams as Road Material. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 28(10):262-264.
[4]. Oluwasola, E. A., Hainin, M. R., Aziz, M. M. A., Yaacob, H., and Warid M. N. M. (2014). Potentials of steel slag and copper mine tailings as construction materials. Materials Research Innovations, 18: 250-254.
[5]. Fahey, M. Newson, T. A., and Fujiyasu, Y. (2002). ‘Engineering with tailings’, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on ‘Environmental Geotechnics’, Brazil, 947–973.
[6]. Azizi, M., Faz, A., Zornoza, R., Martínez-Martínez, S., Shahrokh, V, and Acosta, J.A. (2022). Environmental pollution and depth distribution of metal(loid)s and rare earth elements in mine tailing. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 10(3): 107526.
[7]. Vo, T., Nash, W., Del Galdo, M., Rezania, M., Crane, R.,  Nezhad, M.M., and Ferrara, L. (2022). Coal mining wastes valorization as raw geomaterials in construction: A review with new perspectives. Journal of Cleaner Production. 336(2):130213
[8]. Hatje, V., Pedreira, R.M.A., de Rezende, C.E., Schettini, C.A.F., de Souza, G.C., Marin, D.C., and Hackspacher, P.C. (2017). The environmental impacts of one of the largest tailing dam failures worldwide Scientific reports, 7(1): 10706
[9]. Lyu, Z., Chai, J., Xu, Z., Qin, Y, and Cao, J. (2019). A Comprehensive Review on Reasons for Tailings Dam Failures based on Case History Advances in Civil Engineering, 4(1): 18
[10]. Talukdar, D. K. (2014). A Study of correlation between California Bearing Ratio (CBR) value with other properties of soil. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 4(1), 559-562.
[11]. Olofinyo, O. O., Olabode, O. F., and Fatoyinbo I. O. (2019). Engineering properties of residual soils in part of Southwestern Nigeria: implication for road foundation. SN Applied Sciences 1:507.
[12]. Daramola, S. O., Malomo, S., and Asiwaju‑Bello, Y. A. (2018). Premature failure of a major highway in southwestern Nigeria: the case of Ipele–IsuaHighway. Geo-Engineering: 9 (28).
[13]. Omeka, M. E., Igwe, O. and Unigwe, C. O. (2022). An integrated approach to the bioavailability, ecological, and health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in soils within a barite mining area, SE Nigeria. Environ. Monit. Assess. 194(3): 212.
[14]. Igwe, O. and Chukwu, C. (2019).Slope stability analysis of mine waste dumps at a mine site in Southeastern Nigeria. Bull. Eng. Geol. Envroin. 78: 2503–2517.
[15]. Obisi, M. N., Omeokachie, A. I.,  and Okogbue, C. O. (2023). Characterization, technological properties and utilization of clay‑rich argillite quarry waste as raw material in ceramics and other industrial applications. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 16:506.
[16]. Azgaku, C.B. A. and Osuala, U S. (2015). The Socio-Economic Effects of Colonial Tin Mining on the Jos-Plateau: 1904 – 1960. Development Country Studies, 5(14): 35-39.
[17]. Ebikemefa, E (2020). Benefits of cassiterite mining by artisanal miners in Jos Plateau, Nigeria Clinton Bulletin of the National Research Centre 44:113.
[18]. Owolabi, A.O. (2018). Assessment of Radioactive Contamination in Water Bodies around Mine Workings using Radiation Counter. Journal of Mining & Environment, 9(4): 795-806.
[19]. Omotehinse, A.O. and Ako, B.D. (2019). The environmental implications of the exploration and exploitation of solid minerals in Nigeria with a special focus on Tin in Jos and Coal in Enugu, Journal of Sustainable Mining, 18(1): 18-24,
[20]. NPC 2006: Nigerian Population Commission Yearbook., Federal Government of Nigeria.
[21]. Guntul, T.K., Oche, C.Y., and Madaki, M. (2007). Climate records of Jos Plateau. University of Jos Weather Station. https://irepos.unijos.edu.ng/jspui/bitstream/1234567.
[22]. Binbol, N.L., C.Y. Oche, A.C. Eziashi, and V.D. Choji, (2016). Assessment of hydrological drought characteristics on the Jos, Plateau, Nigeria. Jos Plateau J. Environ. Sustainable Dev., 1: 12-17.
[23]. Zitta, W.S. and Madaki, D.H. (2020). Climate Change, Rainfall Trends and Variability in Jos Plateau. Journal of Applied Sciences, 20: 76-82.
[24]. Odunuga, S. and Badru, G. (2015). Landcover Change, Land Surface Temperature, Surface Albedo and Topography in the Plateau Region of North-Central Nigeria. Land. 4: 300-324
[25]. One Earth (2021). Jos Plateau Forest-Grassland Retrieved October 28, 2021, from https://www.oneearth.org/ecoregions/jos-plateau-forest-grassland/.
[26]. Ozoko, D.C. (2014). AMD Characterization of Surface water and Groundwater in Jos-Bukuru Rayfield Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth,4(10): 12.
[27]. Narsillo, G. A. and Santamarina, J. C. (2016). Clasificación de suelos: Fundamento Físico, prácticas actuales y recomendaciones. Atlanta, USA: Georgia Institute of Technology. Recuperado el 8 de septiembre de 2019 de. http://materias.fi.uba.ar/6408/santamarina.pdf.
[28]. Ixchel, R.M. and Luz, R.M.D. (2021). Characterization of mine tailings in their natural state and stabilized with cement, focused on construction. Ingeniería Investigación y Tecnología volumen XXII (número 2), abril-junio 2021 1-9.
[29]. ASTM D 422—63 (2007). Test Method for Particle-size Analysis of Soils.
[31]. ASTM D4318-17 (2003) - Standard Test Methods for Atterberg Limit.

[32]. ASTM D698-07 Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3)).

[33]. Villalaz, C. C. (2005). Mecánica de suelos y cimentaciones. México: Limusa S.A. de C.V.
[34]. ASTM D1883, 2021 Edition, November 15, 2021 - Standard Test Method for California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of Laboratory-Compacted Soils.
[35]. AASHTO M 145, Standard Specification for Classification of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures for Highway Construction Purposes.
[36]. Murray, HH (2007). Applied clay mineralogy: occurrences, processing, and application of kaolins, bentonites, palygorskite–sepiolite and common clays: Developments in clay science. Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands 2:179.
[37]. Diko, ML, Ekosse, GI, Ayonghe, S, Ntasin (2011). Physical characterization of clayey materials from tertiary volcanic cones in Limbe (Cameroon) for ceramic applications. Appl Clay Sci 51:380–384.
[38]. Daoudi L, Elboudour EH, Saadi L, Albizane A, Bennazha J, Waqif M, El Ouahabi M, and Fagel N (2014). Characteristics and ceramic properties of clayey materials from Amezmiz region (Western High Atlas, Morocco). Appl Clay Sci 102:139–147.
[39]. Igwe, O and Una, C.O. (2019). Landslide impacts and management in Nanka area, Southeast Nigeria Geoenvironmental Disasters 6(5): 1-12.  
[40]. Ojo, G.P., U.G. Igbokwe, U.G., Nwozor, K.K., and Egbuachor, C.J. (2016). Geotechnical Properties of Lateritic Overburden Materials on the Charnockite and Gneiss Complexes in Ipele-Owo Area, Southwestern Nigeria. American Journal of Engineering Research: 5 (9) 53-59.
[41]. Madedor, A.O. (1989). Pavement Design Guidelines and Practice for Different Geological Areas in Nigeria. In Ola S.A (Ed) Tropical Soils of Nigerian in Engineering Practice A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. pp. 291-297.
[42]. Goodary R, Lecomte-Nana GL, Petit C, and Smith DS (2012). Investigation of the strength development in cement-stabilised soils of volcanic origin. Constr Build Mater:  28(1): 592-598.
[43]. Oyelami, C.A. (2017). Suitability of lateritic soils as construction material in sustainable housing development in africa: a geological perspective. PhD thesis, University of Pretoria pp 25.