Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 kiu gilgit

2 Faculty of Land Resources Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Yunnan 650093, China



The study examined the influence of cohesion, friction angle, and tunnel diameter on stability within engineering and geotechnical frameworks, while considering the consequences of nearby excavations on the overall stability assessment. The results show that a higher angle of internal friction leads to a decrease in soil stability number and weighting coefficient. Tunnel diameter significantly affects face support pressure, with larger diameters requiring stronger support due to increased stress. Higher friction angles help stabilize tunnel faces and mitigate diameter-related pressure effects. Stress redistribution around the tunnel is significant within 2 meters from the center, transitioning to elastic behavior elsewhere. A safety factor of 1.3 ensures tensile failure prevention in single and twin tunnels. Balanced stress distribution between tunnels with a slight difference is observed under isotropic in-situ stress. Numerical modeling enhances stress estimations and reveals changes during tunnel excavation, weakening the rock mass. Ground reaction curve analysis with support measures shows reduced tunnel convergence after implementation, suggesting support strategies like extended bolts using updated rock mass rating. The study improves tunnel design and stability assessment by comprehensively understanding stress redistribution and support strategies.


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