Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Professor of Rock mechanics, Depament of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran

2 Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Yazd University

3 Yazd UniversDepartment of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, iran

4 Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd



Around 70% of the world's hydrocarbon fields are situated in reservoirs containing low-strength rocks, such as sandstone. During the production of hydrocarbons from sandstone reservoirs, sand-sized particles may become dislodged from the formation and enter the hydrocarbon fluid flow. Sand production is a significant issue in the oil industry due to its potential to cause erosion of pipes and valves. Separating grains from oil is a costly process. Oil and gas companies are motivated to reduce sand production during petroleum extraction. Hydraulic fracturing is one of the parameters that can influence sand production. However, understanding the complex interactions between hydraulic fracturing mechanisms and sand production around wellbores is critical for optimizing reservoir recovery and ensuring the integrity of production wells. This article explores the integrated simulation approach to model hydraulic fracturing processes and assess their effects on sand production. Two-dimensional models were created using the discrete element method in PFC2D software for this research. The fractures' length in the models varies based on the well's radius. The angle between two fractures at 90 and 180 degrees to each other was also modeled. In the first case, the length of the fracture is less than the radius of the well, in the second case, the values are equal and finally, the fracture length is assumed to exceed the well radius. The calibrated and validated results demonstrate the change in sand production rate in comparison to the unbroken state.


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