Cameroon has a strong geological potential for a number of mineral resources that, if well managed, could support economic growth. The country contains potentially large deposits of iron ore, gold, bauxite, diamond, limestone, nickel, and gemstones, and indices of other numerous minerals and precious metals. Despite its geological wealth, mining has never played a major role in Cameroon’s economic development. A study on the state of sustainable development and environmental challenges in the Cameroon mining sector permits the identification of key points for improvement in order to position the country towards achieving a sustainable mining industry in the future. This paper reviews the mining potential, stakeholder participation, legislation, and mining policy in Cameroon mining industry. The methodology involves a single case study focused on the review of sustainable development in the Cameroon mining industry up to date. It includes scientific studies, and reports of ministries and support organizations, national laws, and regulations related to the area of study. Also the corporate sustainability reports of mining companies and mining stakeholders are analyzed. This research work covers the latest developments in terms of the institutional and regulatory frameworks for mining and the environment in the country, history of mining in Cameroon, and evolution and issues of the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) system in the mining sector until 2016. The work concludes with an identification of the current challenges of implementing sustainable development in mining as well as future directions that research works on this area should take.