Knowledge of the airflow distribution inside a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) can create a safe working environment for workers and machinery. The airflow quality and the related mass flow rate in the ventilation system should be sufficient to dilute gases and remove dust inside the tunnel. In this work, airflow distribution in the single shield TBM tunnel was studied using computational fluid dynamics. The finite volume-based finite element method was used in the simulation based on the 3D complex geometry of TBM. In order to validate the numerical results, the air velocity inside the Chamshir tunnel was measured experimentally at different sections. With a length of 7050 m and a final diameter of 4.6 m, the Chamshir water transport tunnel is located in the south of Iran. The results obtained show that there is not enough airflow in 59.6% of the TBM space in the current working conditions. In other words, there are many dead zones from the control cabin to the end of gantry 6 in the backup system. Several applicable scenarios were studied to remove the dead zone area and optimize the airflow velocity by employing high capacity jet fan in the ventilation system. The results show that the dead zone volume can be decreased by about 5.21% by increasing the airflow rate of the jet fan.