Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 School of Mines, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China

2 Xuzhou University of Technology, Xuzhou, China

3 School of Safety Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China

4 Department of Mining Engineering, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Sciences, Quetta, Pakistan



In this work, we employ the fuzzy logic technique to achieve and present, for the first time, a proper analysis of the actual intensity of the increase in the coal miners’ fatality rates in Pakistan from 2010 to 2018, compared with China and India, with an objective to minimize the impact of incidents on the miners’ fatalities. The average and yearwise fatality rates in Pakistan, compared with China and India, are used for the fuzzy logic technique in order to calculate the actual degree of flexibility for the surging fatalities. The findings show that both the average (2010-2018) and yearwise fatality rates in 2011, 2015, and 2018 are 2.44, 1.74, and 1.6, respectively. In the fuzzy logic technique, the variables whose membership function (µ) values are 1 represent the absolute truth. The membership function values for the years 2011, 2015, and 2018 are alarmingly high for the fatalities of coal miners. Similarly, except for 2014 and 2010, where 0 represents the absolute falseness, the results for the remaining years indicate high fatality rates with a flexibility (or small extent) of its corresponding membership function (µ) values such as 0.623, 0.739, 0.219, 0.173 and 0.115, and 0.714, 0.24, 0.01, 0.324 and 0.317 using the average and yearwise analysis, respectively, compared with China. Likewise, the fuzzy logic membership function (µ) values compared with India in the remaining years are 0.704, 0.795, 0.386, 0.159, 0.352 and 0.306, and 0.675, 0.795, 0.386, 0.186, 0.321 and 0.322, respectively. The proposed fuzzy logic analysis has been founded based on the theory of fuzzy sets to properly identify the miners’ fatalities, and also to suggest the implementation of appropriate recommendations to reduce the fatalities in the coal mines in Pakistan.


[1]. Directorate General of Mines Safety Annual Report. Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India 2014.

[2]. Directorate General of Mines Safety Annual Report. Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India 2015.

[3]. Sajid, M. J., Shahani, N. and Ali, M. (2019). Calculating inter-sectoral carbon flows of a mining sector via hypothetical extraction method. Journal of Mining and Environment. 10 (4): 853-867.‏

[4]. Donoghue AM. Occupational health hazards in mining: an overview. Occupational Medicine (London) 2004; 54: 283–289. DOI: 10.1093/occmed/kqh072.

[5]. Sari, M., Selcuk, A.S., Karpuz, C. and Duzgun, H.S.B. (2009). Stochastic modeling of accident risks associated with an underground coal mine in Turkey. Safety science. 47 (1): 78-87.‏

[6]. Shahani, N.M., Sajid, M.J., Zheng, X., Jiskani, I.M., Brohi, M.A., Ali, M. and Qureshi, A.R. (2019). Fault tree analysis and prevention strategies for gas explosion in underground coal mines of Pakistan. Mining of Mineral Deposits.

[7]. Liu, Q., Meng, X., Hassall, M. and Li, X. (2016). Accident-causing mechanism in coal mines based on hazards and polarized management. Safety science. 85: 276-281.

[8]. Liu, Q., Li, X. and Meng, X. (2019). Effectiveness research on the multi-player evolutionary game of coal-mine safety regulation in China based on system dynamics. Safety science, 111, 224-233.‏

[9]. Lin, B.Q., Chang, J.H. and Zhai, C. (2006). Analysis on coal mine safety situation in China and its countermeasures. China Safety Science Journal. 16 (5): 42-46.‏

[10]. Hai-bin, L.I.U. and Hui, L.G.R.H. (2007). Study on characteristics of coal mine intrinsic safety and strategies of management. China Safety Science Journal (CSSJ). (4): 12.‏

[11]. Jiskani, I.M., Ullah, B., Shah, K.S., Bacha, S., Shahani, N.M., Ali, M. and Qureshi, A.R. (2019). Overcoming mine safety crisis in Pakistan: An appraisal. Process Safety Progress. 38 (4): e12041.‏

[12]. Tripathy, D.P. and Ala, C.K. (2018). Identification of safety hazards in Indian underground coal mines. Journal of Sustainable Mining. 17 (4): 175-183.‏

[13]. Wu, Z. (2007). Study on some strategy problems of China's work safety by 2020. Journal of Safety Science and Technology. 3 (1): 3-7.‏

[14]. Wang, K. (2008). Chemical production accident analysis and prevention.

[15]. Boal, W.M. (2018). Work intensity and worker safety in early twentieth-century coal mining. Explorations in Economic History, 70, 132-149.‏

[16]. WANG, C., ZHANG, W.M., WANG, P.F., Lei, Y. and Zhang, S.S. (2014). Effect of submerged vegetation on the flowing structure and the sediment resuspension under different wind-wave movement conditions [J]. Journal of Safety and Environment. 14 (2): 107-111.‏

[17]. Shahani, N.M., Sajid, M.J., Brohi, M.A., Qureshi, A.R., Shahani, L.B., Bacha, S. and Ullah, B. (2019). An empirical analysis of fatal accidents in the coal mines of Pakistan. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Energy, Resources, Environment and Sustainable Development, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, China (pp. 726-733).‏

[18]. Shahani, N.M., Sajid, M.J., Zheng, X., Jiskani, I.M., Brohi, M.A., Ali, M. and Qureshi, A.R. (2019). Fault tree analysis and prevention strategies for gas explosion in underground coal mines of Pakistan. Mining of Mineral Deposits.‏

[19]. Xie, X., Fu, G., Xue, Y., Zhao, Z., Chen, P., Lu, B. and Jiang, S. (2019). Risk prediction and factors risk analysis based on IFOA-GRNN and apriori algorithms: Application of artificial intelligence in accident prevention. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 122, 169-184.‏

[20]. Ghasemi, E. and Ataei, M. (2013). Application of fuzzy logic for predicting roof fall rate in coal mines. Neural computing and applications. 22 (1): 311-321.‏

[21]. Mohseni, M. and Ataei, M. (2016). Risk prediction based on a time series case study: Tazareh coal mine.‏

[22]. Ghasemi, E., Ataei, M. and Shahriar, K. (2017). Improving the method of roof fall susceptibility assessment based on fuzzy approach. Archives of Mining Sciences. 62 (1): 13-32.‏

[23]. Ataei, M., Khalokakaei, R. and Hossieni, M. (2009). Determination of coal mine mechanization using fuzzy logic. Mining Science and Technology (China). 19 (2): 149-154.‏

[24]. Sereshki, F., Daftaribeshli, A. and Ataei, M. (2010). A Mamdani fuzzy inference system for rock mass rating (RMR) and its use in rock mass parameters estimation. Archives of Mining Sciences, 55(4), 947-960.‏

[25]. Daftaribesheli, A., Ataei, M. and Sereshki, F. (2011). Assessment of rock slope stability using the Fuzzy Slope Mass Rating (FSMR) system. Applied Soft Computing. 11 (8): 4465-4473.‏

[26]. Khalokakaie, R., Ataei, M., Mikaiel, R. and Hoseinie, S.H. (2011). A fuzzy logic based classification for assessing of rock mass drillability. International Journal of Mining and Mineral Engineering. 3 (4): 278-289.‏

[27]. Hosseini, S.A.A., Ataei, M., Hosseini, S.M. and Akhyani, M. (2012). Application of fuzzy logic for determining of coal mine mechanization. Journal of Coal Science and Engineering (China). 18 (3): 225-231.‏

[28]. Sohail, M.T., Huang, D., Bailey, E., Akhtar, M.M. and Talib, M.A. (2013). Regulatory framework of mineral resources sector in Pakistan and investment proposal to Chinese companies in Pakistan. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management. 3 (05): 514.‏

[29]. [5 April 2016].

[30]. 7/ [30 July 2014].

[31]. Shahani, N.M., Wan, Z., Guichen, L., Siddiqui, F.I., Pathan, A.G., Yang, P. and Liu, S. (2019). Numerical analysis of top coal recovery ratio by using discrete element method. Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 24(1).‏

[32]. Shahani, N.M., Wan, Z., Zheng, X., Guichen, L., Liu, C., Siddiqui, F.I. and Bin, G. (2020). Numerical modeling of longwall top coal caving method at thar coalfield. Journal of Metals, Materials and Minerals. 30 (1).‏

[33]. [2012-13].

[34]. Zadeh, L.A. (1965). Fuzzy collection. Inf. Control, 8, 338-356.‏

[35]. Bonham-Carter, G.F. (1994). Geographic information systems for geoscientists-modeling with GIS. Computer methods in the geoscientists. 13: 398.‏

[36]. Zafar MA. Artificial Intelligence (CS607). Virtual University of Pakistan Courses/CS607/ Downloads/ AI_Complete_ hand outs_for_Printing.pdf.  

[37]. Muthumaniraja, CK, Anbazhagan S, Jothibasu A, Chinnamuthu M. Remote Sensing and Fuzzy Logic Approach for Artificial Recharge Studies in Hard Rock Terrain of South India. GIS and Geostatistical Techniques for Groundwater Science 2019; 91-112. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-815413-7.00008-0.

[38]. Ertuğrul, İ. and Tuş, A. (2007). Interactive fuzzy linear programming and an application sample at a textile firm. Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making. 6 (1): 29-49.‏

[39]. Chu, C., Jain, R., Muradian, N. and Zhang, G. (2016). Statistical analysis of coal mining safety in China with reference to the impact of technology. Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 116(1), 73-78.‏

[40]. [17 December 2018].

[41]. [6 May 2018].

[42]. [12 September 2017].

[43].  [27 December 2018].

[44].  [3 June 2018].

[45]. [12 September 2018].

[46]. [21 January 2019].

[47].,16,7559,0.html/ [5 February 2018].

[48]. uplo ads/documents/2016/Pakistan/mining_accidents_in_pakistan_2010-2016.pdf/[2010-2016].

[49]. al-miners-killed-and-one-seriously-injured/ [13 February 2017].

[50]. [29 May 2017].

[51]. -die-in-pakistan/[12 September 2019].

[52].;/ [2018].

[53]. [5 April 2018].

[54]. [7 May 2018].

[55]. [16 August 2018].

[56]. [1981-2017].

[57]. Ministry of Coal, Safety in Coal Mines. National Informatics Centre (NIC), Govt. of India 2018.