Document Type: Original Research Paper

Authors

Faculty of Mining, Petroleum and Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran

10.22044/jme.2020.9916.1919

Abstract

In this work, three types of natural clays including kaolinite, montmorillonite, and illite with different molecular structures, as adsorbents, are selected for the removal of methylene blue dye, and their performance is investigated. Also the optimization and the analysis of the dye adsorption mechanism are performed using the response surface methodology, molecular modeling, and experimental studies. The response surface optimization results demonstrate that the parameters affecting on the dye adsorption process are somewhat similar in all the three types of clays, and any difference in the impacts of the different parameters involved depends on the different structures of these three types of clays. The results of the experimental studies show that all the three clays follow the Temkin isotherm, and the comparison of the clay adsorption capacity is illite (3.28) > kaolinite (4.15) > montmorillonite (4.5) L/g. On the other hand, the results obtained from the laboratory studies and the response surface optimization were obtained using molecular modeling with the Gaussian and Chem-Office softwares. The results of these achievements confirm that the number of acceptor hydrogen bonds around the clays influence the adsorption capacity of methylene blue. Based on the results obtained, most adsorption capacities of clays are related to illite > kaolinite > montmorillonite that have 24, 18, and 16 acceptor hydrogens, respectively. The assessment of the adsorption mechanism process by the different methods confirms the dominance of the physical adsorption process and a minor effect of the chemical adsorption.

Keywords

[1]. Mancosu, N., Snyder, R.L., Kyriakakis, G. and Spano, D., 2015. Water scarcity and future challenges for food production. Water. 7 (3): pp.975-992.

[2]. Lazaratou, C.V., Vayenas, D.V. and Papoulis, D. (2020). The role of clays, clay minerals and clay-based materials for nitrate removal from water systems: A review. Applied Clay Science, 185, p.105377.

[3]. Wang, R.C., Fan, K.S. and Chang, J.S., 2009. Removal of acid dye by ZnFe2O4/TiO2-immobilized granular activated carbon under visible light irradiation in a recycle liquid–solid fluidized bed. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. 40 (5): pp.533-540.

[4]. Chen, H., Luo, H., Lan, Y., Dong, T., Hu, B. and Wang, Y. (2011). Removal of tetracycline from aqueous solutions using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-K30) modified nanoscale zero valent iron. Journal of hazardous materials. 192 (1): pp.44-53.

[5]. Xia, L., Zhou, S., Zhang, C., Fu, Z., Wang, A., Zhang, Q., Wang, Y., Liu, X., Wang, X. and Xu, W. (2020). Environment-friendly Juncus effusus-based adsorbent with a three-dimensional network structure for highly efficient removal of dyes from wastewater. Journal of Cleaner Production, p.120812.

[6]. Dutta, A.K., Maji, S.K. and Adhikary, B. (2014). γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles: An easily recoverable effective photo-catalyst for the degradation of rose bengal and methylene blue dyes in the waste-water treatment plant. Materials Research Bulletin, 49, pp.28-34.

[7]. Arfi, R.B., Karoui, S., Mougin, K. and Ghorbal, A. (2017). Adsorptive removal of cationic and anionic dyes from aqueous solution by utilizing almond shell as bioadsorbent. Euro-Mediterranean Journal for Environmental Integration. 2 (1): p.20.

[8]. Hou, Y., Yan, S., Huang, G., Yang, Q., Huang, S. and Cai, J. (2020). Fabrication of N-doped carbons from waste bamboo shoot shell with high removal efficiency of organic dyes from water. Bioresource Technology. 303: p.122939.

[9]. Kurmarayuni, C.M., Kurapati, S., Akhil, S., Chandu, B., Khandapu, B.M.K., Koya, P.R. and Bollikolla, H.B. (2020). Synthesis of multifunctional graphene exhibiting excellent sonochemical dye removal activity, green and regioselective reduction of cinnamaldehyde. Materials Letters. 263: p.127224.

[10]. Gupta, V.K., Carrott, P.J.M., Ribeiro Carrott, M.M.L. and Suhas. (2009). Low-cost adsorbents: growing approach to wastewater treatment a review. Critical reviews in environmental science and technology. 39 (10): pp.783-842.

[11]. Seow, W.Y. and Hauser, C.A., 2016. Freeze–dried agarose gels: A cheap, simple and recyclable adsorbent for the purification of methylene blue from industrial wastewater. Journal of environmental chemical engineering. 4 (2): pp.1714-1721.

[12]. Januário, Eduarda Freitas Diogo, Natália de Camargo Lima Beluci, Taynara Basso Vidovix, Marcelo Fernandes Vieira, Rosângela Bergamasco, and Angélica Marquetotti Salcedo Vieira. (2020). 'Functionalization of membrane surface by layer-by-layer self-assembly method for dyes removal', Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 134: 140-48.

[13]. Siboni, M.S., Samarghandi, M., Yang, J.K. and Lee, S.M. (2011). Photocatalytic removal of reactive black-5 dye from aqueous solution by UV irradiation in aqueous TiO2: equilibrium and kinetics study. J. Adv. Oxid. Technol, 14, pp.302-307.

[14]. Abbasi, M. and Asl, N.R. (2008). Sonochemical degradation of Basic Blue 41 dye assisted by nanoTiO2 and H2O2. Journal of hazardous materials. 153 (3): pp.942-947.

[15]. Ouni, H. and Dhahbi, M. (2010). Removal of dyes from wastewater using polyelectrolyte enhanced ultrafiltration (PEUF). Desalination and Water Treatment: 22 (1-3): pp.355-362.

[16]. Clematis, D., Cerisola, G. and Panizza, M. (2017). Electrochemical oxidation of a synthetic dye using a BDD anode with a solid polymer electrolyte. Electrochemistry Communications, 75, pp.21-24.

[17]. García-Montaño, J., Pérez-Estrada, L., Oller, I., Maldonado, M.I., Torrades, F. and Peral, J., 2008. Pilot plant scale reactive dyes degradation by solar photo-Fenton and biological processes. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 195 (2-3): pp.205-214.

[18]. Sahinkaya, E., Sahin, A., Yurtsever, A. and Kitis, M., 2018. Concentrate minimization and water recovery enhancement using pellet precipitator in a reverse osmosis process treating textile wastewater. Journal of environmental management, 222, pp.420-427.

[19]. Srinivasan, A. and Viraraghavan, T. (2010). Decolorization of dye wastewaters by biosorbents: a review. Journal of environmental management. 91 (10): pp.1915-1929.

[20]. Li, R., Wang, J.J., Zhou, B., Awasthi, M.K., Ali, A., Zhang, Z., Gaston, L.A., Lahori, A.H. and Mahar, A., 2016. Enhancing phosphate adsorption by Mg/Al layered double hydroxide functionalized biochar with different Mg/Al ratios. Science of the Total Environment. 559: pp.121-129.

[21]. Anastopoulos, Ioannis, Ahmad Hosseini-Bandegharaei, Jie Fu, Athanasios C Mitropoulos, and George Z Kyzas. (2018). 'Use of nanoparticles for dye adsorption', Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, 39: 836-47.

[22]. Rai, P., Gautam, R.K., Banerjee, S., Rawat, V. and Chattopadhyaya, M.C. (2015). Synthesis and characterization of a novel activated carbon magnetic nanocomposite and its effectiveness in the removal of crystal violet from aqueous solution. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 3 (4): pp.2281-2291.

[23]. Rahman, M.A., Amin, S.R. and Alam, A.S. (2012). Removal of methylene blue from waste water using activated carbon prepared from rice husk. Dhaka University Journal of Science. 60 (2): pp.185-189.

[24]. Omer, O.S., Hussein, M.A., Hussein, B.H. and Mgaidi, A., 2018. Adsorption thermodynamics of cationic dyes (methylene blue and crystal violet) to a natural clay mineral from aqueous solution between 293.15 and 323.15 K. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 11 (5): pp.615-623.

[25]. Ayawei, Nimibofa, Augustus Newton Ebelegi, and Donbebe Wankasi. (2017). 'Modelling and interpretation of adsorption isotherms', Journal of Chemistry, 2017.

[26]. Bandar, S., Anbia, M. and Salehi, S., Comparison of MnO2 modified and unmodified magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticle adsorbents and their potential to remove iron and manganese from aqueous media. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 851, p.156822.

[27]. Al-Ghouti, M.A., Li, J., Salamh, Y., Al-Laqtah, N., Walker, G. and Ahmad, M.N. (2010). Adsorption mechanisms of removing heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solution using date pits solid adsorbent. Journal of hazardous materials. 176 (1-3): pp.510-520.

[28]. Shabani, K.S., Ardejani, F.D., Badii, K. and Olya, M.E. (2017). Preparation and characterization of novel nano-mineral for the removal of several heavy metals from aqueous solution: Batch and continuous systems. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 10, pp.S3108-S3127.

[29]. Ko, D.C., Porter, J.F. and McKay, G. (2001). Film-pore diffusion model for the fixed-bed sorption of copper and cadmium ions onto bone char. Water research. 35 (16): pp.3876-3886.