Document Type: Case Study


1 School of Mining, Petroleum & Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran

2 School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Center for Research in Geophysics and Geology (CPGG), Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, Brazil


In this paper, first the limitations of the ray-based method and the one-way wave-field extrapolation migration (WEM) in imaging steeply dipping structures are discussed by some examples. Then a new method of the reverse time migration (RTM), used in imaging such complex structures is presented. The proposed method uses a new wave-field extrapolator called the Leapfrog-Rapid Expansion Method (L-REM) for wave-field extrapolation. This improved method also includes a new imaging condition based on Poynting vector for wave-field separation and calculating the reflection angles. Afterwards, the results obtained for the application of the new RTM method are compared with those obtained by the harmonic-source method as a delay shot or plane wave RTM. Finally, the efficiency of these imaging methods is tested using the BP 2004 2D seismic dataset. The results obtained indicate the superiority of the presented RTM method in imaging such steep dip structures in comparison with the other imaging procedures.