Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Faculty of Technical & Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran

2 Faculty of Mining, Petroleum and Geophysics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran


Whether directly in the form of expenses or indirectly, the objective of maintenance in the mining industry is self-evident in time losses and loss of production. In this paper, the reliability-based maintenance is examined with a different insight than before. The system goes back to the Good As New (GAN) state or too Bad As Old (BAO) maintenance state; why so, the maintenance of the system shifts to the midrange state. On the other hand, the implementation of repairs is strongly influenced by the environmental factors that are known as the “risk factors”. Therefore, an analysis requires a model that integrates two basic elements: (1) incompleteness of the maintenance effect and (2) risk factors. Thus, an extensive proportional hazard ratio model (EPHM) is used as a combination of the Proportional Hazard Model (PHM) and the Hybrid Imperfect Preventive Maintenance model (HIPM) in order to analyze these elements. In this regards, four different preventive maintenance strategies are proposed. All four strategies are time-based including constant interval or periodic (the first and second strategies) and cyclic interval (the third and fourth strategies). The proposed method is applied for a Komatsu HD785-5 dump-truck in the Songun copper mine as a case study. The PM intervals with a mean value of risk factors for the four activities to reach the 80% reliability for the first and second strategies are about 5 and 48 hours. These intervals for the third strategy are calculated as 48.36, 11.58, 10.25, and 9.035, and for the fourth strategy are 5.06, 4.078, 3.459, and 1.92.


[1]. Dhillon, B.S. (2008). Mining equipment reliability, maintainability, and safety. Springer.
[2]. Barabady, J. (2005). Reliability and maintainability analysis of crushing plants in Jajarm Bauxite Mine of Iran. 109–115.
[3]. Ostad-Ahmad-Ghorabi, M.J. and Attari, M. (2013). Advancing environmental evaluation in cement industry in Iran. Journal of Cleaner Production, 41, 23–30.
[4]. Kumar, U. and Klefsjö, B. (1992). Reliability analysis of hydraulic systems of LHD machines using the power law process model. Reliability Engineering & System Safety. 35 (3): 217–224.
[5]. Kumar, D., Klefsjö, B. and Kumar, U. (1992). Reliability analysis of power transmission cables of electric mine loaders using the proportional hazards model. Reliability Engineering & System Safety. 37 (3): 217–222.
[6]. Samanta, B., Sarkar, B. and Mukherjee, S. (2004). Reliability modelling and performance analyses of an LHD system in mining. South African Institute Mining And Metallurgy, 104, 1–8.
[7]. Barabady, J. and Kumar, U. (2008). Reliability analysis of mining equipment: A case study of a crushing plant at Jajarm Bauxite Mine in Iran. Reliability Engineering & System Safety. 93 (4): 647–653.
[8]. Hoseinie, S. H., Ataei, M., Khalokakaie, R. and Kumar, U. (2011). Reliability modeling of hydraulic system of drum shearer machine. Journal of Coal Science and Engineering (China). 17 (4): 450–456.
[9]. Hoseinie, S. H., Ataei, M., Khalokakaie, R., Ghodrati, B. and Kumar, U. (2012). Reliability analysis of the cable system of drum shearer using the power law process model. International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment, 1–15.
[10]. Hoseinie, S., Ghodrati, B., Galar, D. and Juuso, E. (2015). Optimal Preventive Maintenance Planning for Water Spray System of Drum Shearer. IFAC-PapersOnLine. 48 (17): 166–170.
[11]. Hoseinie, S., Ahmadi, A., Ghodrati, B. and Kumar, U. (2013). Reliability-centered maintenance for spray jets of coal shearer machine. International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering. 20 (03): 1340006.
[12]. Nouri Gharahasanlou, A., Khalokakaie, R., Khalokakaie, M. and Mokhtarei, A. (2015). Reliability Analysis of Conveyor Belt System of Crushing Department. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences-TextRoad Publication, 5, 349–357.
[13]. Nouri Gharahasanlou, A., Ataei, M., Khalokakaie, R. and Barabadi, A. (2016). Normalised availability importance measures for complex systems. International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment, 1–14.
[14]. Rahimdel, M.J., Ataei, M. and Khalokakaei, R. (2016). Reliability Analysis and Maintenance Scheduling of the Electrical System of Rotary Drilling Machines. In Current Trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (pp. 623–632). Springer.
[15]. Ghodrati, B. and Kumar, U. (2005). Operating environment-based spare parts forecasting and logistics: A case study. International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications. 8 (2): 95–105.
[16]. Gorjian Jolfaei, N. (2012). Asset health prediction using the explicit hazard model. Queensland University of Thechnology.
[17]. Kumar, D. and Klefsjö, B. (1994). Proportional hazards model: A review. Reliability Engineering & System Safety. 44 (2): 177–188.
[18]. Gorjian, N., Ma, L., Mittinty, M., Yarlagadda, P. and Sun, Y. (2010). The explicit hazard model-part 1: Theoretical development. 1–10.
[19]. Gorjian, N., Mittinty, M., Ma, L., Yarlagadda, P. and Sun, Y. (2010). The explicit hazard model-part 2: Applications. 1–7.
[20]. Cox, D.R. (1972). Regression models and life-tables. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological), 187–220.
[21]. Ghodrati, B., Kumar, U. and Kumar, D. (2003). Product support logistics based on product design characteristics and operating environment. Annual International Logistics Conference and Exhibition: 12/08/2003-14/08/2003.
[22]. Makis, V. and Jardine, A.K. (1992). Optimal replacement in the proportional hazards model. INFOR: Information Systems and Operational Research. 30 (1): 172–183.
[23]. Martorell, S., Sanchez, A. and Serradell, V. (1999). Age-dependent reliability model considering effects of maintenance and working conditions. Reliability Engineering & System Safety. 64 (1): 19–31.
[24]. Percy, D.F. and Alkali, B.M. (2007). Scheduling preventive maintenance for oil pumps using generalized proportional intensities models. International Transactions in Operational Research. 14 (6): 547–563.
[25]. Pham, H. and Wang, H. (1996). Imperfect maintenance. European Journal of Operational Research. 94 (3): 425–438.
[26]. You, M.-Y., Li, H. and Meng, G. (2011). Control-limit preventive maintenance policies for components subject to imperfect preventive maintenance and variable operational conditions. Reliability Engineering & System Safety. 96 (5): 590–598.
[27]. Liu, T.B., Kang, J.S., Luo, G. K., Lv, Y. and Wang, Y. (2012). The hybrid imperfect maintenance model based on improvement factor of hazard rate and effective age. 536–539.
[28]. Ait Mokhtar, E.H., Laggoune, R. and Chateauneuf, A. (2017). Imperfect preventive maintenance policy for complex systems based on Bayesian networks. Quality and Reliability Engineering International. 33 (4): 751–765.
[29]. Zaki, R., Barabadi, A., Qarahasanlou, A.N. and Garmabaki, A. (2019). A mixture frailty model for maintainability analysis of mechanical components: A case study. International Journal of System Assurance Engineering and Management. 10 (6): 1646–1653.
[30]. Zaki, R., Barabadi, A., Barabadi, J. and Qarahasanlou, A.N. (2021). Observed and unobserved heterogeneity in failure data analysis: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part O: Journal of Risk and Reliability.
[31]. Rod, B., Barabadi, A. and Naseri, M. (2020). Recoverability Modeling of Power Distribution Systems Using Accelerated Life Models: Case of Power Cut due to Extreme Weather Events in Norway. Journal of Management in Engineering. 36 (5): 05020012.
[32]. Mottahedi, A., Sereshki, F., Ataei, M., Qarahasanlou, A.N. and Barabadi, A. (2021). Resilience analysis: A formulation to model risk factors on complex system resilience. International Journal of System Assurance Engineering and Management, 1–13.
[33]. IEC 60050—International Electrotechnical Vocabulary—Details for IEV number 191-07-01: “maintenance.” (2014, January 24).
[34]. IEC 60050—International Electrotechnical Vocabulary—Details for IEV number 191-07-08: “corrective maintenance.” (2014, January 24).
[35]. Cui, L. (2008). Maintenance Models and Optimization. In K. B. Misra (Ed.), Handbook of Performability Engineering (pp. 789–805). Springer London.
[36]. El-Ferik, S. and Ben-Daya, M. (2006). Age-based hybrid model for imperfect preventive maintenance. IIE Transactions. 38 (4): 365–375.
[37]. Khatab, A. (2013). Hybrid hazard rate model for imperfect preventive maintenance of systems subject to random deterioration. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 1–8.
[38]. Nakagawa, T. (1988). Sequential imperfect preventive maintenance policies. IEEE Transactions on Reliability. 37 (3): 295–298.
[39]. Gharahasanlou, A.N., Ataei, M., Khalokakaie, R., Barabadi, A. and Einian, V. (2017). Risk based maintenance strategy: A quantitative approach based on time-to-failure model. International Journal of System Assurance Engineering and Management, 1–10.