Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Geology, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran

2 Mining and Metallurgical engineering department of Yazd University, Yazd, Iran


In this research work, X-ray diffraction (XRD) tests and petrographic studies are performed to analyze the mineral composition and lamination in the shale rock specimens. Afterward, point load (PL) and uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) tests are carried out on the anisotropic laminated shale rock. Based on the macro-mechanical properties of these tests, the discrete element method implemented in a two-dimensional particle flow code (PFC2D) is adjusted to numerically simulate the shale rock specimens. The aim of this work is to validate the numerical models by failure process, stress-strain curves, and peak failure strengths of the shale samples. Therefore, point load test is used for assessing the pattern failure mechanism, and uniaxial compressive strength test is performed for obtaining the stress-strain curves and peak strength failure points in the laboratory shale rock samples. Validation of peak strengths criteria provides the best results; the determination coefficient values for lab and numerical modeling with (R2 = 0.99). Several numerical models are prepared for estimating the mechanical behavior of shale rocks in PFC2D. The smooth joint model (SJM) is used for preparing the consistent and appropriate constitutive models for simulating the mechanical behavior of laminated shale. It is concluded that SJM provides more reasonable results for laminated shale rock that can be used for several petroleum engineering projects, especially in the central geological zone of Iran.


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