Assessing the groundwater potential (GWP) and protective capacity of aquifers is essential to provide solutions to challenges in aquifer exploration and conditions in hilly terrain regions. The study was conducted in the hilly terrain region of Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh, India, to obtain one-dimensional vertical electrical sounding (VES) data for groundwater exploration and evaluate the vulnerability of sublayers. Forty VES sites were used in the Schlumberger electrode configuration. The analysis of data resulted in stratified 2-5 different curves. According to the geoelectric sections, there are two to five layers of soil beneath the region i.e. Shale/clay (10-650 Ohm-m), fractured sandstone/gravel/sand (10.3-436 Ohm-m), clay mix gravel/clay mix sand/coarse-grained sandstones (1.06-355 Ohm-m), conglomerate/clay/hard sandstone (60.5-658.7 Ohm-m), sandstone/shale (90.8-125 Ohm-m) with aquifer resistivity (AR) in parenthesis. Aquifer resistivity (AR), longitudinal conductance (S), layer thickness (LT), and transverse resistivity (TR) distribution maps were generated using interpreted VES data for various sub-layers using ArcGIS 10.1. The geologic second and third sub-surface layers are generally porous and permeable. S values for underlying layers are generally less than unity, which indicates vulnerable zones with a significant risk of contamination. Based on the S values, the strata are divided into five categories as Poor (5.55%), weak (19.43%), moderate (19.45%), good (38.89%), and very good (16.68%). Areas with moderate to very good protection capacity are planned as zones with high GWP. The study results are useful in preliminary pollution control and assessment for sustainable groundwater management.