Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Departamento de Ingeniería de Minas, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Trujillo, Perú

2 Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional del Altiplano de Puno, Puno, Perú

3 Departamento de Ingeniería Metalurgica, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Trujillo, Perú



The objective of this research work to employ machine learning techniques including Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks (ANN-MLP), Random Forests (RFs), Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost), and Support Vector Regression (SVR) to predict copper ore grades in a copper deposit located in Peru. The models were developed using 5654 composites containing available geological information (rock type), as well as the locations of the samples (east, north, and altitude) and secondary ore grade (Mo) obtained from drilling wells. The data was divided into 10% (565 composites) for testing, 10% (565 composites) for validation, and 80% (4523 composites) for training. The evaluation metrics included SSE (Sum of Squared Errors), RMSE (Root Mean Squared Error), NMSE (Normalized Mean Squared Error), and R² (Coefficient of Determination). The XGBoost model could predict the ore grade with an SSE of 15.67, RMSE = 0.17, NMSE = 0.34, and R² = 0.66, the RFs model with an SSE of 16.40, RMSE = 0.17, NMSE = 0.36, and R² = 0.65, the SVR model with an SSE of 19.94, RMSE = 0.19, NMSE = 0.43, and R² = 0.57, and the ANN-MLP model with an SSE = 21.00, RMSE = 0.19, NMSE = 0.46, and R² = 0.55. In conclusion, the XGBoost model was the most effective in predicting copper ore grades.


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