Document Type : Original Research Paper


1 Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Urmia University, 5756151818 Urmia, Iran

2 Postdoc, Faculty of Science and Technology, UiT, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway

3 Department of Civil Engineering, Seraj Institute of Higher Education, Tabriz, Iran



Nowadays, tunnel excavation plays a major role in the development of countries. Due to the complex and challenging ground conditions, a comprehensive study and analysis must be done before, during, and after the excavation of tunnels. Hence, the importance of study and evaluation of ground settlement is dramatically increased since many tunnel projects are performed in urban areas, where there are plenty of constructions, buildings, and facilities. For this reason, the control and prediction of ground settlement is one of the complicated topics in the field of risk engineering. Therefore, in this paper, the proportional hazard model (PHM) is used to analyze and study the ground settlement induced by Tabriz Metro Line 2 (TML2) tunneling. The PHM method is a semi-parametric regression method that can enter environmental conditions or factors affecting settlement probability. These influential factors are used as risk factors in the analysis. After establishing a database for a case study and using a proportional hazard model for surface settlement analysis, and then by evaluating the effect of environmental conditions on the ground surface settlement, it has been found that the risk factors of grouting pressure behind the segment, the ratio of tunnel depth to groundwater level, and drained cohesion strength at a significant level of 5% have a direct effect on the probability of settlement. The results also showed that the effect of grout injection pressure on ground subsidence is more than other parameters, and with increasing injection pressure, the probability of exceeding safe subsidence values decreases. In addition, it has been found that increasing the risk factor for the ratio of tunnel depth to groundwater level reduces the probability of exceeding the safe ground settlement. Finally, increasing the number of risk factors for drained cohesion strength increases the probability of exceeding safe settlement. 


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