Both the deformation characters and the failure mode of the large cross-sectional longwall installation roadway under compound roof are becoming an emergent issue than ever before due to the rapid development of modern mining equipment. Various engineering applications have revealed that the insufficient design and inappropriate support technology are the main reasons for the fatal accidents associated with the sudden roof fall attributed to the separation of the overlying compound strata. The present research work, therefore, starts with a case study using the conventional support technology in order to demonstrate the importance of this issue followed by a summarization of the typical failure mode of the longwall installation roadway under compound strata with varied thicknesses. Then a simplified theoretical model is proposed and set up aiming at a better understanding of the distribution of the elastic-plastic zones as well as the effects of different caving procedures. The finite element analysis software program FLAC3D is adopted to evaluate the effect of the caving method and the reinforcement provided by an additional support. Then a case study conducted at a typical coal mine with compound roof condition is presented to verify the advantages of the proposed design. The results obtained show that the optimized design presented in this research work is effective to control the deformation of the surrounding rock, particularly in terms of separation of the overlying compound strata.