Document Type: Original Research Paper

**Authors**

Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

**Abstract**

Displacements around a tunnel, occurring as a result of excavation, consist of the elastic and plastic parts. In this paper, we discuss the elastic part of displacements as a result of excavation, called net displacement. In general, the previous analytical solutions presented for determining the displacements around a circular tunnel in an elastic medium do not give the net displacements directly. The well-known Kirsch solution is the most widely used method for determining the induced stresses and net displacements around a circular opening in a biaxially-loaded plate of homogeneous, isotropic, continuous, linearly elastic material. However, the complete solution for obtaining the net displacements has not been presented or highlighted in the available literature. Using the linear elasticity, this paper reviews and presents three different analytical methods for determining the net displacements directly as well as induced stresses around a circular tunnel. The three solution methods are the Lame' method, airy stress function method, and complex variable method. The tunnel is assumed to be situated in an elastic, continuum, and isotropic medium in the plane strain condition. The solutions are presented for both the hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic in situ stresses in the 2D biaxial loading condition along with an internal pressure. Loading and unloading in tunneling occurring as a result of excavation and stress differences between the induced and initial ones are considered to evaluate the net displacements directly. Finally, some examples are given to demonstrate the complete solution and show the difference between the net elastic displacements as a result of excavation and total elastic displacements that are not real.

**Keywords**

**Main Subjects**

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