Document Type : Original Research Paper

Authors

1 Mining department, engineering Faculty, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran

2 Mining Engineering Department, Arak University of Technology, Arak, Iran

10.22044/jme.2020.10122.1950

Abstract

In this research work, the potential capability of nano-clay and tonsil, as low-cost and domestic adsorbents, for the elimination of a cationic dye, (CR18) from contaminated water is investigated. The surface properties of the adsorbents are studied by means of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction techniques. The effects of the initial dye concentration, pH, stirring speed, contact time, and adsorbent dosage are investigated at 25 . The results obtained show that the dye adsorption data from the nano-clay and tonsil experiments fit well to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, respectively. The results of dye adsorption kinetics demonstrate that the adsorption system follows a pseudo-second-order model with a satisfactory correlation value (R=99%).The adsorption thermodynamics is also studied, concluding that the adsorption process is spontaneous and physically controlled. Under the optimum conditions (pH of 7, stirring speed of 200 rpm, CR18 concentration of 30 ppm and contact time of 30 min), the adsorption capacities of the mixed adsorbents show the maximum adsorption efficiency at the tonsil:nano-clay weight ratio of 1:2.

Keywords

[1]. Crini G (2006) Non-conventional low-cost adsorbents for dye removal: a review. Bioresource technology 97(9): 1061-1085.

[2]. Molen J (2008) Treatability studies on the wastewater from a dye manufacturing industry. Unpublished master’s thesis. Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand.

[3]. Ding S, Li Z, and Wang R (2010) Summary of treatment of dyestuff wastewater. Water Resources Protection 26(3): 73-78.

[4]. Chen K-C, Wu J-Y, Huang C-C, Liang Y-M, and Hwang S-CJ (2003) Decolorization of azo dye using PVA-immobilized microorganisms. Journal of Biotechnology 101(3): 241-252.

[5]. Puvaneswari N, Muthukrishnan J, and Gunasekaran P (2006) Toxicity assessment and microbial degradation of azo dyes. Indian journal of experimental biology 44(8): 618-626.

[6]. Omar HH (2008) Algal decolorization and degradation of monoazo and diazo dyes. Pak J Biol Sci 11(10): 1310-1316.

[7]. Smith P , and Coackley P (1983) A method for determining specific surface area of activated sludge by dye adsorption. Water Research 17(5): 595-598.

[8]. Jia J, Yang J, Liao J, Wang W, and Wang Z (1999) Treatment of dyeing wastewater with ACF electrodes. Water research 33(3): 881-884.

[9]. Al-Degs Y, Khraisheh M, Allen S, and Ahmad M (2000) Effect of carbon surface chemistry on the removal of reactive dyes from textile effluent. Water Research 34(3): 927-935.

[10]. Sivaraj R, Namasivayam C, and Kadirvelu K (2001) Orange peel as an adsorbent in the removal of acid violet 17 (acid dye) from aqueous solutions. Waste management 21(1): 105-110.

[11]. Gupta V (2009) Application of low-cost adsorbents for dye removal–A review. Journal of environmental management 90(8): 2313-2342.

[12]. Ula MM , Latif WA (2012) Fixed bed adsorption for wastewater treatment. Universiti Malaysia Pahang.

[13]. Morais L, Freitas O, Goncalves E, Vasconcelos L, and Beca CG (1999) Reactive dyes removal from wastewaters by adsorption on eucalyptus bark: variables that define the process. Water Research 33(4): 979-988.

[14]. Sivakumar S, Senthilkumar P, and Subburam V (2001) Carbon from cassava peel, an agricultural waste, as an adsorbent in the removal of dyes and metal ions from aqueous solution. Bioresource Technology 80(3): 233-235.

[15]. Annadurai G, Juang R-S, and Lee D-J (2002) Use of cellulose-based wastes for adsorption of dyes from aqueous solutions. Journal of hazardous materials 92(3): 263-274.

[16]. Ramesha G, Kumara AV, Muralidhara H, and Sampath S (2011) Graphene and graphene oxide as effective adsorbents toward anionic and cationic dyes. Journal of colloid and interface science 361(1): 270-277.

[17]. Salleh MAM, Mahmoud DK, Karim WA, and Idris A (2011) Cationic and anionic dye adsorption by agricultural solid wastes: A comprehensive review. Desalination 280(1): 1-13.

[18]. Bajpai A, and Rajpoot M (1999) Adsorption techniques: a review. J Sci Ind Res 58(11): 844-860.

[19]. Manev ED, and Nguyen AV (2005) Effects of surfactant adsorption and surface forces on thinning and rupture of foam liquid films. International Journal of Mineral Processing 77(1): 1-45.

[20]. Lima E, Horinek D, Netz R, Biscaia E, Tavares F, Kunz W, and Boström (2008) Specific ion adsorption and surface forces in colloid science. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 112(6): 1580-1585.

[21]. Parker HL, Hunt AJ, Budarin VL, Shuttleworth PS, Miller KL, and Clark JH (2012) The importance of being porous: polysaccharide-derived mesoporous materials for use in dye adsorption. RSC Advances  2(24): 8992-8997.

[22]. Gharabaghi M, and Aghazadeh S (2014) A review of the role of wetting and spreading phenomena on the flotation practice. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 19(4): 266-282.

[23]. Aghazadeh S, Mousavinezhad SK, and Gharabaghi M (2015) Chemical and colloidal aspects of collectorless flotation behavior of sulfide and non-sulfide minerals. Advances in colloid and interface science 225: 203-217.

[24]. Atkin R, Craig V, Wanless EJ, and Biggs S (2003) Mechanism of cationic surfactant adsorption at the solid–aqueous interface. Advances in colloid and interface science 103(3): 219-304.

[25]. Dąbrowski A (2001) Adsorption—from theory to practice. Advances in colloid and interface science 93(1): 135-224.

[26]. Foo K, and Hameed B (2010) Insights into the modeling of adsorption isotherm systems. Chemical Engineering Journal 156(1): 2-10.

[27]. Fu Y, and Viraraghavan T (2001) Fungal decolorization of dye wastewaters: a review. Bioresource technology 79(3): 251-262.

[28]. Annadurai G, Ling LY, and Lee J-F (2008) Adsorption of reactive dye from an aqueous solution by chitosan: isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic analysis. Journal of hazardous materials 152(1): 337-346.

[29]. Ramakrishna KR, and Viraraghavan T (1997) Dye removal using low cost adsorbents. Water Science and Technology 36(2-3): 189-196.

[30]. Harris RG, Wells JD, and Johnson BB )2001( Selective adsorption of dyes and other organic molecules to kaolinite and oxide surfaces. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 180(1): 131-140.

[31]. Ghosh D, and Bhattacharyya KG (2002) Adsorption of methylene blue on kaolinite. Applied Clay Science 20(6): 295-300.

[32]. Özcan AS , and Özcan A (2004) Adsorption of acid dyes from aqueous solutions onto acid-activated bentonite. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 276(1): 39-46.

[33]. Tahir S, and Rauf N (2006) Removal of a cationic dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto bentonite clay. Chemosphere 63(11): 1842-1848.

[34]. Yue Q-Y, Li Q, Gao B-Y, Yuan A-J, and Wang Y (2007) Formation and characteristics of cationic-polymer/bentonite complexes as adsorbents for dyes. Applied Clay Science 35(3): 268-275.

[35]. Bulut E, Özacar M, and Şengil İA (2008) Equilibrium and kinetic data and process design for adsorption of Congo Red onto bentonite. Journal of Hazardous Materials 154(1): 613-622.

[36]. Lian L, Guo L, and Guo C (2009) Adsorption of Congo red from aqueous solutions onto Ca-bentonite. Journal of Hazardous Materials 161(1): 126-131.

[37]. Shen D, Fan J, Zhou W, Gao B, Yue Q, and Kang Q (2009) Adsorption kinetics and isotherm of anionic dyes onto organo-bentonite from single and multisolute systems. Journal of hazardous materials 172(1): 99-107.

[38]. Meshko V, Markovska L, Mincheva M, and Rodrigues A (2001) Adsorption of basic dyes on granular acivated carbon and natural zeolite. Water research 35(14): 3357-3366.

[39]. Alpat SK, Özbayrak Ö, Alpat Ş, and Akçay H (2008) The adsorption kinetics and removal of cationic dye, Toluidine Blue O, from aqueous solution with Turkish zeolite. Journal of hazardous materials 151(1): 213-220.

[40]. Han R, Zhang J, Han P, Wang Y, Zhao Z, and Tang M (2009) Study of equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters about methylene blue adsorption onto natural zeolite. Chemical Engineering Journal 145(3): 496-504.

[41]. Özacar M, and Şengil İA (2002) Adsorption of acid dyes from aqueous solutions by calcined alunite and granular activated carbon. Adsorption 8(4): 301-308.

[42]. Özacar M, and Şengil IA (2003) Adsorption of reactive dyes on calcined alunite from aqueous solutions. Journal of hazardous materials 98(1): 211-224.

[43]. Doğan M, and Alkan M (2003) Removal of methyl violet from aqueous solution by perlite. Journal of colloid and interface science 267(1): 32-41.

[44]. Özacar M, and Şengil İA (2004) Application of kinetic models to the sorption of disperse dyes onto alunite. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 242(1): 105-113.

[45]. Champagne P-P, and Ramsay J (2007) Reactive blue 19 decolouration by laccase immobilized on silica beads. Applied microbiology and biotechnology 77(4): 819-823.

[46]. Roulia M , and Vassiliadis AA (2008) Sorption characterization of a cationic dye retained by clays and perlite. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 116(1): 732-740.

[47]. Vijayakumar G, Dharmendirakumar M, Renganathan S, Sivanesan S, Baskar G, and Elango KP (2009) Removal of Congo red from aqueous solutions by perlite. CLEAN–Soil, Air, Water 37(4‐5): 355-364.

[48]. Namasivayam C, and Kavitha D (2002) Removal of Congo Red from water by adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from coir pith, an agricultural solid waste. Dyes and pigments 54(1): 47-58.

[49]. Malik K (2003) Use of activated carbons prepared from sawdust and rice-husk for adsorption of acid dyes: a case study of Acid Yellow 36. Dyes and pigments 56(3): 239-249.

[50]. Adekola F, and Adegoke H (2005) Adsorption of blue-dye on activated carbons produced from rice husk, coconut shell and coconut coir pith. Ife Journal of Science 7(1): 151-157.

[51]. Han R, Ding D, Xu Y, Zou W, Wang Y, Li Y, and Zou L (2008) Use of rice husk for the adsorption of congo red from aqueous solution in column mode. Bioresource Technology 99(8): 2938-2946.

[52]. Gong J-L, Wang B, Zeng G-M, Yang C-P, Niu C-G, Niu Q-Y, Zhou W-J, and Liang Y (2009) Removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solution using magnetic multi-wall carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite as adsorbent. Journal of Hazardous Materials 164(2): 1517-1522.

[53]. Verma V, Mishra A (2010) Kinetic and isotherm modeling of adsorption of dyes onto rice husk carbon. Global NEST Journal 12(2): 190-196.

[54]. Safa Y, and Bhatti HN (2011) Kinetic and thermodynamic modeling for the removal of Direct Red-31 and Direct Orange-26 dyes from aqueous solutions by rice husk. Desalination 272(1):       313-322.

[55]. Chowdhury S, Mishra R, Saha P, and Kushwaha P (2011)  Adsorption thermodynamics, kinetics and isosteric heat of adsorption of malachite green onto chemically modified rice husk. Desalination 265(1): 159-168.

[56]. Tan KA, Morad N, Teng TT, Norli I, and Panneerselvam P (2012) Removal of cationic dye by magnetic Nanoparticle (Fe3O4) impregnated onto activated maize cob powder and kinetic study of dye waste adsorption. APCBEE Procedia 1: 83-89.

[57]. Aljeboree AM, Alshirifi AN, and Alkaim AF (2014) Kinetics and equilibrium study for the adsorption of textile dyes on coconut shell activated carbon. Arabian Journal of Chemistry 10: S3381-S3393.

[58]. Netpradit , Thiravetyan P, and Towprayoon S (2004) Adsorption of three azo reactive dyes by metal hydroxide sludge: effect of temperature, pH, and electrolytes. Journal of colloid and interface science 270(2): 255-261.

[59]. Gupta VK, Ali I, and Saini VK (2007) Adsorption studies on the removal of Vertigo Blue 49 and Orange DNA13 from aqueous solutions using carbon slurry developed from a waste material. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 315(1): 87-93.

[60]. Santos SC, Vilar VJ, and Boaventura RA (2008) Waste metal hydroxide sludge as adsorbent for a reactive dye. Journal of Hazardous Materials 153(3): 999-1008.

[61]. Wong Y, Szeto Y, Cheung W, and McKay G (2003) Equilibrium studies for acid dye adsorption onto chitosan. Langmuir 19(19): 7888-7894.

[62]. Wong Y, Szeto Y, Cheung W, and McKay G (2004) Adsorption of acid dyes on chitosan—equilibrium isotherm analyses. Process Biochemistry 39(6): 695-704.

[63]. Allen S, Mckay G, and Porter J (2004) Adsorption isotherm models for basic dye adsorption by peat in single and binary component systems. Journal of colloid and interface science 280(2): 322-333.

[64]. Hu Z, Zhang J, Chan W, and Szeto Y (2006) The sorption of acid dye onto chitosan Nanoparticles. Polymer 47(16): 5838-5842.

[65]. Cheung W, Szeto Y, and McKay G (2007) Intraparticle diffusion processes during acid dye adsorption onto chitosan. Bioresource Technology 98(15): 2897-2904.

[66]. Han X, Wang W, and Ma X (2011) Adsorption characteristics of methylene blue onto low cost biomass material lotus leaf. Chemical Engineering Journal 171(1): 1-8.

[67]. Cheng R, Xiang B, Li Y, and Zhang M (2011) Application of dithiocarbamate-modified starch for dyes removal from aqueous solutions. Journal of hazardous materials 188(1): 254-260.

[68]. Abdel-Halim E (2013) Preparation of starch/poly (N, N-Diethylaminoethyl methacrylate) hydrogel and its use in dye removal from aqueous solutions. Reactive and Functional Polymers 73(11): 1531-1536.

[69]. Crini G (2003) Studies on adsorption of dyes on beta-cyclodextrin polymer. Bioresource technology 90(2): 193-198.

[70]. Crini G (2008) Kinetic and equilibrium studies on the removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solution by adsorption onto a cyclodextrin polymer. Dyes and Pigments 77(2): 415-426.

[71]. Cheng R, Ou S, Xiang B, Li Y, and Liao Q (2009) Equilibrium and molecular mechanism of anionic dyes adsorption onto copper (II) complex of dithiocarbamate-modified starch. Langmuir 26(2): 752-758.

[72]. Tunc Ö, Tanacı H, and Aksu Z (2009) Potential use of cotton plant wastes for the removal of Remazol Black B reactive dye. Journal of Hazardous Materials 163(1): 187-198.

[73]. Wang Q, Luan Z, Wei N, Li J, and Liu C (2009) The color removal of dye wastewater by magnesium chloride/red mud (MRM) from aqueous solution. Journal of hazardous materials 170(2): 690-698.

[74]. Mahmoodi NM, Arami M, Limaee NY, Gharanjig K, and Nourmohammadian F (2007) Nanophotocatalysis using immobilized titanium dioxide Nanoparticle: degradation and mineralization of water containing organic pollutant: case study of Butachlor. Materials Research Bulletin 42(5): 797-806.

[75]. Banihashemi A, Moghadam MRA, Maknoon R, and Nikazar M (2008) Development of a coagulation/flocculation predictive model for turbidity removal from Tehran water treatment plants. Environmental Engineering & Management Journal (EEMJ) 7(1): 13-16.

[76]. Langmuir I (1916) The constitution and fundamental properties of solids and liquids. Part I. Solids. Journal of the American Chemical Society 38(11): 2221-2295.

[77]. Uber F (1985) Die adsorption in losungen. Z. Phys. Chem 57: 387-470.

[78]. Cheremisinoff NP (2001) Handbook of water and wastewater treatment technologies. Butterworth-Heinemann.

[79]. Fathizadeh M, and Nikazar M (2009) Adsorption of aromatic from alkane/aromatic mixtures by NaY zeolite. Journal of chemical engineering of Japan 42(4): 241-247.

[80]. Ho YS, and McKay G (1999) Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes. Process Biochem 34: 451-465.

[81]. Mahmoodi NM, and Najafi F (2012) Preparation of surface modified zinc oxide nanoparticle with high capacity dye removal ability. Materresbull. 47: 1800–1809.

[82]. Jaycock MJ, and Parfitt GD (1981) Chemistry of interfaces. Onichester, Ellis Horwood Ltd.

[83]. Lui P (2007) Polymer modified clay minerals, A review. Appl Clay Sci 38: 64-76.